Cortisone is the body’s own hormone and is one of the best-known drugs of all. It is successfully used in the most diverse diseases, at the same time, many people are afraid of the possible risks and side-effects. But today, there is a clear therapy guidelines and expectations for when and how to cortisone as a drug can be used.
Cortisone and cortisol
Cortisone is based on cortisol, a vital hormone that belongs in the is formed in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol and to the glucocorticoids. In 1936, succeeded in three independent groups of researchers to isolate a substance from the adrenal gland, which was later called cortisone. Ten years later, this fabric could also be produced in a laboratory synthetically. The first successful therapy was in the year 1948, the treatment of a young American woman with severe rheumatoid arthritis – the patient was able to run again after a few days pain free.
Today, coming to the use of Corticosteroids are chemically related to the “natural” cortisone. For the metabolism of cortisol (hydrocortisone) is actually, or in therapy, the acetic acid esters of cortisone acetate; cortisone, is, in principle, by Oxidation of the inactivated Form of Cortisol. Nevertheless, for the handling of the term “cortisone has the language” for all medicinal products with a cortisol-effects.
Glucocorticoids in metabolism
In the resting state, the body is 8-25 mg of cortisol per day, at stress loads, up to 300 mg. Since the hormone must be the body is always available, is controlled to be a component of a complex regulating mechanism. Within this mechanism, the greatest amount of cortisol is formed in several spurts up in the morning at 6-8 o’clock, after which the hormone decreases in production to a Minimum at midnight. The exact knowledge of this control loop, under certain circumstances, even individually for each patient, is one of the basic requirements for a successful treatment with cortisone.
Glucocorticoids play in many metabolic processes has an important role. They mobilize when needed in the body’s stored energy reserves, for example, by increasing through various processes in the blood sugar level and release the fat boost, and are therefore often referred to as stress hormones. As a side effect of muscle and bone mass is reduced. In addition, you have an important function in inflammation: they can inhibit the inflammatory reactions at different levels (anti-inflammatory effect) – the main property for which one uses cortisol to medication.
In addition, glucocorticoids also influence the water-electrolyte balance – an effect that is in the case of cortisol as a drug usually undesirable and therefore, in the case of the synthetic preparations as a side-effect is suppressed.