- 1 The essence of the study
- 2 In what cases prescribe such a survey
- 3 Echoencephalography application in childhood
- 4 Preparation for the procedure and its implementation
- 5 Interpretation of research results
- 6 Where can i do echo head
The essence of the study
The human brain plays a major role in the work of the entire nervous system. A small failure in the work of this body can lead to impaired coordination of the human body. A thorough examination will help identify the causes of the disease.
Brain echoencephalography is a reliable and affordable method of research presented by medicine. The procedure is absolutely painless. It can be carried out at any age.
Not everyone has an idea about the features of this survey method and where it is conducted. Many are interested in how to do this procedure and what indications for diagnosis.
Echo EG practically no different from ultrasound (ultrasound). Echoencephalography of the brain or echoencephaloscopy (EchoES) is based on the reflection of ultrasound waves from human tissues.
Sensors mounted on the patient’s head transmit waves to each other, which are reflected from the surface and internal structures of the brain. These waves are converted into an electrical signal, which is recorded by a specialist in the form of an image or diagram on the screen. This method gives an accurate picture of the state and pathologies of the brain.
Electroencephalography allows you to learn about vascular diseases and causes of improper cerebral circulation. The method helps to assess the lumen and tone of the veins.
Head echo is a non-invasive type of research, so it is often used to quickly establish a diagnosis in an emergency. Do not confuse this examination with the procedure of echocardiography, which is used in studies of the heart.
In what cases prescribe such a survey
Symptoms in which the doctor may prescribe Echo EG:
- recurrent headache;
- feeling of dizziness, weak orientation in space;
- buzz in the ears;
- head injuries accompanied by nausea or vomiting.
In addition, echoencephalography is assigned to identify the causes of other pathologies:
- pain in the cervical region;
- vegetative dystonia;
- impaired blood circulation;
- syndrome vertebro-basilar arterial system;
- ischemic disease;
- brain concussion;
- encephalopathy of the vessels of the head;
Electroencephalogram shows the main parameters of cerebral functions. With the help of Echo of the head, you can identify a number of diseases. These include: various tumors, inflammation, cerebral blood flow disorder, intracranial pressure, hydrocephalic syndrome, adenoma of brain areas.
Echoencephalography application in childhood
The procedure is completely painless. This is the main advantage of Echo EG. The research process is not accompanied by discomfort and discomfort. This makes this type of examination convenient for the diagnosis of various pathologies in a child.
Echoencephalography is used in children with the following disorders:
- to assess the degree of hydrocephalus of the brain;
- with significant sleep disorders;
- with nervous tics;
- in case of delayed speech and physical development;
- with muscle hypertonia;
- with bruises and concussion of the brain.
In children under one and a half years, it is possible to make a more accurate and complete diagnosis of all parts of the brain, since before this age the spring is still not completely overgrown.
Also, the method of EEG (encephalogram) is used to detect malfunctions in the brain in children. This study captures biological neural currents and helps to identify the causes of epilepsy during brain activity.
Preparation for the procedure and its implementation
Echo of the head does not require additional training. You do not need to drink plenty of fluids or follow a special diet, as is the case with ultrasound. The survey is used in people of any age. There are no contraindications for the normal course of pregnancy and breastfeeding after consultation with the doctor.
How is the diagnosis? First, the specialist must examine the patient’s medical history and check the condition of the head to exclude subcutaneous hemorrhages and symmetry breaking. The patient is in a supine position, but sometimes you can perform the procedure and sitting. Before installing the sensors and starting the study, the specialist applies a special gel in certain areas of the head. This allows you to strengthen the connection of the sensor with the skin. The gel is absolutely harmless and does not cause irritation and discomfort, deformation, etc.
Begin diagnosis from the right side of the skull, then to the left, move from the frontal to the back of the head. This survey option is used for urgent diagnosis. It is often used for emergency diagnostics. The small size of the device allows you to transfer it, thereby accelerating the diagnosis in bedridden patients.
One-dimensional echoencephaloscopy of the brain is usually performed in the clinic by the attending physician, but you can also do it in an ambulance carriage, at home and on the street. To do this, the device must be equipped with a battery. The procedure lasts from 10 to 15 minutes.
Types of diagnostics
Echo EG is of two types:
In the transmission method, two ultrasound probes are used, which are mounted on the same axis on both sides of the skull. The first probe sends electrical signals to the second. This is necessary to calculate the “midline of the head.” Norm – if it coincides with the middle line, which should be smooth. But if there were bruises, dislocations or intracranial hemorrhages, the signal from the sensors does not match the anatomical line.
In the emission method of diagnosis, only one probe is used. It is installed in those points where the cranial bone is the thinnest. Due to this, ultrasound penetrates better and gives a more accurate understanding of the state of the brain. To make the image more accurate, the Echo EG apparatus is gradually moved along the surface of the skull. A projection of the cross section of the brain will appear on the monitor. But if the foci of pathology are insignificant, this method of examination will not be sufficiently reliable.
Interpretation of research results
The results of interpretation Echo EG of the brain in adults and children do not differ. The procedure is performed by a sonologist.
Normally, the survey consists of three bursts, which are called complexes. The initial burst is an ultrasound signal. Ultrasound is reflected from the bones of the skull, skin and brain tissue. The median surge (M-echo) is a complex that is obtained by contacting ultrasound with the structures of brain tissue located between the two hemispheres.
The final burst is a signal that comes from the tissues of the cranial bones and the hard shell of the brain on the other side of the probe. The interconnection of these three complexes is projected onto the monitor screen and is a graph with axes. The specialist prints the results on paper and begins decoding.
The data decryption is as follows:
- M-echo. Such a signal usually takes a middle position between two bursts. The norm will be 1.5 mm offset. If the indicator is more, then you need to undergo additional diagnostics. With a stroke, a shift of more than 5 mm indicates the hemorrhagic nature of the disease. If there is no signal at all or it is not more than 2.5 mm, the disease is ischemic.
- Splash from the third cerebral ventricle. Cleavage or expansion of this indicator indicates intracranial hypertension.
- M-echo pulsation. Indicators should not exceed 10-30%. If they are higher, it may indicate brain hydrocephalus.
- SI (srednellarny index). For adults, rates of 3.9-4.1 and above will be the norm. If the results are lower, this indicates increased intracranial pressure.
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of echoencephalograms in norm: at the top – frontal section of the head with ultrasound sensors located in the temporal areas (A, B), below are the echoencephalogram (A – right, B – left); CC – median structures, M – M-echo, ES – echo signal from various non-median structures of the brain, NC – the initial complex, QC – the final complex; Normally, the distance a on the echoencephalogram obtained when installing the sensor on the right is equal to the distance b on the curve obtained when installing the sensor on the left.
Fig. 2. Schematic representation of an echoencephalogram with a lesion in the right hemisphere of the brain. In pathology (the mass in the right hemisphere of the brain is shaded), the distance on the right (upper) curve is increased due to the displacement of the mid brain structures, and the direction of the M-echo shift is opposite to the localization of the pathological focus.
Electroencephalography contains several more indicators:
- Index of the third ventricle. The norm is 22-24 points. If the result is less, it is a sign of hydrocephalic syndrome.
- The index of the medial wall. The norm is 4-5 points. A higher result indicates intracranial hypertension.
Each examination, be it Echo EG, ultrasound or ECG, has errors. Only the doctor can decipher the results. After identifying the origin of the disease, he will prescribe the necessary treatment or additional diagnosis.
Where can i do echo head
This type of disease screening offer to undergo specialized clinics in many cities of Russia. The study is prescribed by a neurologist.
Echo EG doctors have been using for many years. This is the only method for the study of the brain, which has no contraindications. It allows you to identify pathology when magnetic resonance or computed tomography are inaccessible for one reason or another. The procedure does not cause discomfort, after it there are no side effects. The only drawback of this method of diagnosis is that it does not reveal small pathologies, unlike CT or MRI, which help diagnose the disease in its early stages.