- 1 Mechanism of occurrence
- 2 Types of ticks
- 3 The reasons
- 4 Diagnostics
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Prevention
The onset of the disease is attributed to childhood, although in some situations it has been noted in adults. Most often, tics appear in the eye area, but they affect the muscles of the extremities, the larynx.
Mechanism of occurrence
The process of muscle contraction is associated with the coordinated work of several structures of the neuromuscular system:
- Pyramid system. It is here that motor impulses are formed that participate in the formation of deliberate movements. This system includes motor neurons located in the cortex of the frontal area of the brain.
- Extrapyramidal system. The area of responsibility of this system is involuntary movements associated with maintaining body position, coordination of movements, and stereotypical actions. It includes subcortical nuclei, cerebellum, brain stem. It is believed that the main mediator of the system is dopamine, and nerve tics appear due to the pathological sensitivity of the extrapyramidal system cells to it.
- Nerves. Since tics occur mainly on the face, it is advisable to dwell only on those nerve processes that innervate the muscles of this part of the body. The oculomotor participates in the movement of the upper eyelid. Facial causes the work of the frontal, brow, ear fibers, muscles of the lips, cheeks. The triple causes the temporal and chewing muscle tissue to move.
- Skeletal muscle. These are elastic tissues that contract in the process of impulses. As part of the muscles produce elongated cells, myocytes, sarcoplasmic reticulum containing calcium. The third component – filamentous myofibrils, which reduce tissue. They consist of proteins that take part in the tension of the fibers.
In the brain, an impulse arises that is transmitted through the neurons and, reaching the right muscle, innervates it. At the same time, the mediator acetylcholine is released from the neuron at its receptor. There is a large selection of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
This element interacts with troponin protein, under the influence of which actin filaments converge. The sarcoplasmic reticulum decreases and, as a result, the muscles contract, which in the case of pathology manifest themselves in tics.
In the description of the process of involuntary contractions by patients, there is often a mention of the fact that, before they arise, pain or discomfort appears in their place.
Nervous tic allows you to get rid of these unpleasant feelings. In some cases, arbitrary stress, such as closing the eye, helps prevent involuntary spasms.
Types of ticks
Often, those who have encountered tics only by hearsay and have seen their random manifestations in other people do not realize that they manifest differently and there are classifications of involuntary muscle contractions. Researchers, however, identify several reasons for talking about different types of tics.
According to etiology
Primary tics appear against the background of an intact nervous system and are the only sign of its violation. They also arise under the influence of heredity factors. It is believed that choleric temperament contributes to the development of primary spasms.
Secondary tics occur as a result of certain diseases.
If the pathology appears less than a year, they talk about transient tics. They become chronic if they accompany a person’s life for more than 12 months.
By the nature of the manifestations
Tics do not always manifest motor contraction of the muscles. Sing out vocal and sensory. Vocal are associated with pronouncing, shouting out individual sounds or even words.
Sensory occur due to the appearance of discomfort in a particular part of the body, for example, associated with cooling. It is an unpleasant sensation that makes the patient perform a movement, get rid of him.
By area of distribution
If one or two muscle groups are involved in the formation of a tic, they speak of a simple form. This is screwing up, blinking, twitching of the shoulder, clenching the fist, licking the lips. Vocal manifest whistling, hissing, clattering, snorting, squeaking.
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Difficult tics occur due to the simultaneous contraction of several muscles. These are jumping, touching, performing some gestures, clicking. By vocal call shouting words, pronouncing curses.
Often tics are localized in one part of the body. This occurs, for example, with such a manifestation of pathology as a nervous tic of the eye. This pathology is characterized by a special name – blepharospasm.
Frequent twitching of the muscular tissue of the face and eyes arises due to the large number of nerve endings and weak muscles.
Generalized contractions cover several muscle groups. As a rule, at the beginning of the lesion covers only the head, then the body and limbs.
The main cause of ticks is called a malfunction of the extrapyramidal system. These disorders occur under the influence of a large number of factors.
The group of these factors include stress, increased anxiety, self-doubt.
Each of these conditions leads to prolonged or acute emotional stress that activates the body’s compensatory mechanisms. In particular, the occurrence of a large number of involuntary impulses in the extrapyramidal system, which cause the appearance of ticks, is possible.
Mostly a group of these causes causes motor tics in children. At risk – age up to 7 years and puberty. In the first case, emotional stress and spasms lead to heavy addiction to kindergarten, frequent illness and their treatment, exhausting the child’s nervous system. In the second – experiences associated with drastic hormonal changes, the perception of his new role, lack of understanding of peers, conflicts with parents.
Researchers also note that tiki occur more often in urban areas than in rural areas. Life in large populated formations is associated with a frantic speed of life, leading to increased tension, lack of contact between people. It weakens and overstimulates the nervous system.
Excessive arousal and depletion of the central nervous system – the result of work for wear, lack of sleep, prolonged use of computers. Fatigue is manifested by the nervous tick of the century, irritability, increased anxiety, anxiety.
Caffeinated beverages, some medications also have a stimulating effect on the brain, including extrapyramidal systems. Nervous tics occur both at the stage of excessive arousal and at the stage of exhaustion.
Alcohol and drug use
These substances, like psychostimulants, excite the central nervous system, leading to a waste of resources. An additional negative effect has a loss of control over emotions, often accompanying the use of alcohol.
Emotional lability is noted. Emotions become intense, excessive.
Deficiency of nutrients
The lack of calcium in the body, which is involved in the reduction of muscle tissue, leads to excessive excitability of cells of the nervous and muscular tissue. One of the manifestations of this process is jerking. Often, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract lead to a lack of beneficial substances.
Some drugs used for the treatment of other diseases and used by man have a stimulating effect. Some, such as anticonvulsants, lead to excessive dopamine production.
With increased sensitivity to it extrapyramidal centers appear nervous tics. Neuroleptics, psychostimulants cause pathology.
Traumatic brain injury
Some TBIs are associated with direct damage to the motor areas. Damage occurs due to tissue rupture, hemorrhage, hematomas.
The neoplasms, localized directly in the cerebellum, trunk, neighboring regions, spinal cord, irritate nerve cells, leading to the birth of impulses.
Viruses, bacteria that enter the brain cause inflammation, swelling and damage to blood vessels and neurons.
Epilepsy, schizophrenia, and other pathologies lead to organic and physiological changes in the brain, including the extrapyramidal system.
Vasoconstriction, the formation of blood clots, sclerotic plaques leads to impaired blood flow in the brain. Pathology can affect the departments associated with motor centers. Aneurysm squeezes nerve endings, causing involuntary spasms.
To discover the exact causes, to understand the nature of the pathology, a complex diagnosis is required. But before moving on to objective research, the doctor carries out an assessment of the patient’s condition. The circumstances under which tick symptoms appear, the time of their occurrence are determined. The doctor specifies the diseases with which a person suffers, manifestations of involuntary sounds, movements in relatives.
On examination, a neurologist checks reflexes, the state of the muscles. A child has symptoms of a nervous tic and his treatment is determined by the pediatrician at the primary admission.
- Blood test. Allows you to detect signs of bacterial, viral infections, parasites. The ionogram demonstrates the characteristics of the electrolyte composition. Check the content of calcium and magnesium.
- Feces on parasite eggs.
- X-ray. The study allows to determine the presence of hematomas, tumors, injuries.
- Electroencephalography. Detects bioelectric pulses.
- Magnetic resonance imaging. Provides a complete picture of brain changes. Helps to detect vascular disorders, tumors, hematomas.
- Electromyography. The study reveals impaired transmission of nerve impulses.
Additionally appointed consultations of other professionals. In case of injury or suspicion of them, a visit to a traumatologist is recommended. Symptoms characteristic of mental illness, is the basis for consultation neurologist. Signs of alcoholism, taking drugs or drugs – narcologist. Diagnosis of the causes and determination of the treatment of eye nerves requires consultation with an ophthalmologist. If necessary, visits to the infectious disease specialist and oncologist are scheduled.
Therapeutic tactics depend on the causes of the pathology. In the event of secondary tics, the underlying disease is treated.
Usually, in order to remove tics, they use medicinal methods, physiotherapy and psychotherapy.
For removal of primary nervous tics, a sedative medicine is used – valerian, motherwort tincture, Persen, Novo-Passit. Each of them soothes, relieves sleep disorders, reduces anxiety.
Treat secondary spasms indicated neuroleptics – Thioridazine, Haloperidol. They relieve anxiety, reduce the excitation of the extrapyramidal system, calm down.
Eliminate emotional stress, reduce the level of anxiety, tranquilizers soothe. This group includes Phenazepam, Gidazepam. Calcium deficiency is filled with calcium gluconate.
Sometimes, botulinum toxin injections are used to reduce the intensity of tic manifestations. The drug is injected into the contracted muscle. For about four months, he paralyzes a nerve that innervates muscle tissue. During this time, motor neurons form new processes that reach the muscles and begin to transmit impulses aimed at contraction to it.
This method of treatment is indicated for primary tics and as part of complex secondary therapy. It includes helping a person understand problems, learn how to cope with traumatic situations, put barriers between themselves and circumstances that cause severe mental stress. A psychotherapist teaches how to control himself. Explains how to get rid of the nervous tic of the eyes, other parts of the body.
Children are shown family therapy with their parents. Some classes invite only older relatives. They are taught how to give a child confidence, to cope with difficult situations, ridicule classmates.
One of the effective methods of treating muscle spasms is electric. Weak impulses of low frequency are transmitted to the brain from the orbit, increasing inhibition, contributing to the occurrence of sleep.
Electrosleep helps to restore sleep, psycho-emotional state, reduces the severity of ticks, reduces arousal.
Acupuncture has a similar effect. The method is associated with the impact on certain points with the help of needles. Relaxing massage helps to reduce tic severity.
In children, tics are treated using compresses, baths with sea salt and aromatic substances.
In order to remove the nervous tic of the eye, associated with fatigue, long work at the computer, it is advised to perform a small exercise. You need to relax for a few minutes with your eyes closed. Then put on them a fleece moistened with water. After that, open your eyes, close your eyes, repeat movements up to 3 times, blink, close your eyes again and relax.
Another way to get rid of spam is to click on the middle of the eyebrow.
To avoid the reappearance of nervous tics, proper nutrition, relaxation, and emotional control are shown.
The menu should include meals rich in calcium. A decrease in the diet of coffee, tea, and alcohol will help restore psycho-emotional balance, reduce arousal, and speed up the use of body resources.
To master the relaxation methods, it is shown to practice yoga, breathing exercises, and walk in nature. You can take a relaxing bath with essential oils, inhale the aromas of herbs. The basil will reduce depression, the geranium will remove alarm, the lavender will calm.
A nervous tick is not a sentence, especially in situations where its appearance is not due to serious pathologies. If not fully cured, then psychotherapeutic methods, sedatives will significantly reduce the frequency and strength of its manifestations. In the presence of pathologies indicated the use of drugs that contribute to the improvement of brain metabolism, reducing the excitability of the nervous system.
The following sources were used to prepare the article:
Levin OS, Moskovtseva Zh. M. Features of the clinical picture and the course of tics in adults // Journal Almanac of Clinical Medicine – 2001.
Chutko L. S. Tiki in children // Journal Medical Council – 2008.