Increased Bleeding Tendency
Heparin is usually well tolerated, but just like many other drugs also have side effects. In the process, low molecular weight Heparin usually shows less side effects than unfractionated Heparin. In General, it is important to note that the use of the active ingredient to an excessive bleeding tendency. For this reason, care must be taken during the treatment to ensure that patients are not exposed to risk of injury. Especially children and older people should be treated, therefore, only to a limited extent with Heparin.
An increased bleeding tendency is observed, especially when Heparin is injected. Symptoms such as nosebleeds, bleeding in the skin and mucous membrane bleeding occur then amplified. How strong is this bleeding may occur, depends, in the first line of the administered dose.
However, in the case of an external application of very high doses of the drug, an increased tendency to haemorrhage. In addition, it can come in rare cases, allergic skin reactions. In addition to redness of the skin, the affected areas may itch and burn.
Rare side effects of Heparin
Heparin is administered by syringe, it is at the site of injection also to redness, and hardening, as well as smaller bruises. In addition, the blood and liver values. In rare cases, moreover, side effects such as hives have been addiction, Nausea, shortness of breath, loss of hair, and a drop in blood pressure or platelet counts (heparin-induced thrombocytopenia) was observed. Very rarely, side effects such as blood vessel spasms, osteoporosis, or allergic shock have been reported.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
In the case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, the administration of Heparin to a drop in the platelet count. Generally speaking, two different HIT types are distinguished:
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (type I): In the first days of treatment there is a slight drop in the platelet count, however, is formed by itself. A treatment is therefore usually necessary.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (type II): The Occurrence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II depends on the duration of Heparin administration, in most cases, it only occurs from about the fifth Day. Through the gift of the active ingredient, an antibody response is triggered: This ensures that the blood coagulation is inhibited, but further will be activated. This can lead to blood clumping, which can cause in the worst case, a stroke or a pulmonary embolism.
In this type of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, the number of the blood can remove the tile and in extreme cases by up to 50 percent. The suspicion that such a condition exists, is the gift of the active ingredient must be stopped immediately. To be able to the underlying disease continues to treat, should be taken with other coagulation inhibitors.
Low molecular weight and unfractionated Heparin
Generally, it is differentiated between low molecular weight Heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated Heparin (UFH). The two substances differ with respect to their chain length: weight heparin with a chain length of from 5 to 17 mono saccharides than a low molecular weight, heparin with a chain length of 18 monosaccharides than unfractionated Heparin.
Unfractionated Heparin exerts its effect in the body faster than low molecular weight Heparin, because it inactivates various coagulation factors. However, the coagulation values the blood must be checked when therapy with unfractionated Heparin regularly by a doctor.
The effectiveness of the therapy with the help of a PTT Tests, the partial thromboplastin time is measured. The result indicates whether there is too much (increased risk of Bleeding), too little (increased risk of thrombosis), or just the right dose of the active ingredient is administered.