Function Tests: Cranial Nerves
The twelve pairs of brain important structures that connect the brain with the peripheral nerves. They contain a variety of nerve fibres, muscle movement, senses, and other sensations to be responsible and face (including eyes, ears, nose, mouth), neck, and chest and abdominal organs. Their function, amongst others,
- Eye tests,
- Ears studies,
- Examination of the skin sensitivity in the face, the Facial expression and the tongue movement
assess. This will be checked only if the doctor asks you to show him the tongue, frowning and his fingers to watch afterwards.
Function test of motor skills
For the ability to move the voluntary muscles in a targeted and coordinated, they must coordinate the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles. Therefore be used for the motor exam is also very different Tests.
- Coordination: During normal walking, or rope-dancer gear, with closed eyes, on the tips of the toes and on the Hack or the virtual screw in a light bulb, the coordinated will be reviewed together. This can be affected in various disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or inner ear damage.
- The doctor asks the patient to individual muscles or muscle groups against the resistance hook. He evaluated the force is always in the side comparison and pays attention to pain. Also, the Hold of the arms with closed eyes can give hints on light interference – namely, when a Arm drops slowly.
- The state of tension of the muscles is also important information on possible diseases. It can be increased (spasticity, Rigidity), for example, in Parkinson’s disease, or reduced, for example, in the case of muscle diseases.
- Reflexes: Almost everybody knows it: the rubber-coated, shiny Hammers, and the doctor hits under your knee or in the bend of the elbow and the leg or Arm to Twitch. He checks how well a stimulus through nerve fibers to the muscle will be forwarded. Reflexes may be diminished or extinguished, or increased, (Clonus). Since the stimulus response is individually pronounced differently, reflexes evaluated always in the side comparison. Strong differences are with a high probability of pathological. In addition, there are reflexes in babies is normal, but later then ill.
Test the sensitivity of
Also, the investigation of the various sensory qualities in comparison. Are successively set to the patient, with closed eyes, various stimuli – only in healthy areas for comparison, as it feels normal, then the probably diseased areas. To be checked:
- Sense of touch (e.g., with a cotton ball),
- Vibration-sense (with tuning-fork placed on the bone protrusions),
- Location – and movement perception (\”What is above and below\” in the Finger, which is moved by the physician),
- Pain (with a broken wooden sticks) and
- Temperature sensation (cold and warm water in a test tube).
In addition, the Patient should feel to recognize Figures written on the skin, objects, or capture, and detect when the same two stimuli. Disturbances of sensibility occur, e.g., when a herniated disc or nerve disorders due to diabetes.