- 1 Types of tumor
- 2 The reasons
- 3 Symptoms
- 4 Stages
- 5 Diagnostics
- 6 Treatment
Over time, the symptoms become more specific, allow the disease to be diagnosed, and often turn the life of the patient into hell.
Types of tumor
Researchers have developed a rather large classification of tumors, depending on a variety of factors.
Histological, structural characteristics, features of the course of the disease allow us to distinguish two groups of neoplasms: benign and malignant.
Benign tumors are not capable of division, grow slowly, do not penetrate into other tissues. In their structure, they resemble those cells from which they originated, partially retain their functions. Such tumors can be removed by surgery, with relapse extremely rare. However, benign neoplasms in the brain are very dangerous. They lead to squeezing of blood vessels, the appearance of edema, stagnation of venous blood, while their location does not always make it possible to remove them.
Malignant neoplasms consist of cells that divide very quickly. Tumors grow rapidly, forming at the same time whole foci and penetrating into the adjacent tissues. Most often, malignant tumors have no clear boundaries. They are difficult to treat, including surgery, and are prone to relapse.
Location allows you to talk about 3 types of tumors. Intracerebral found in the substance of the brain. Extracerebral appear in the membrane and nerve tissues. Intraventricular – in the cerebral ventricles.
In the diagnosis and determination of diseases according to ICD-10, diseases are also distinguished depending on the exact location of the tumor, for example, in the frontal lobes, cerebellum.
Primary neoplasms appear as a result of changes occurring in the brain. They affect the bones of the skull, gray matter, blood vessels. Among the primary tumors, there are several subspecies:
- Astrocytoma. Brain cells mutate – astrocytes. A tumor is a type of glioma, often of a benign nature.
- Medulloblastoma. It is another type of glioma. Neoplasms appear in the posterior cranial fossa, grow as a result of mutation of embryonic cells. This tumor accounts for 20% of all brain damage. Often, it occurs in children of different ages, from babies to teenagers.
- Oligodendroglioma. Oligodendrocytes undergo changes.
- Mixed gliomas. Mutation occurs in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This form is found in 50% of primary tumors.
- Meningiomas. Cell cells change. More often is benign, but sometimes malignant.
- Lymphomas. The disease occurs in the lymphatic vessels of the brain.
- Pituitary adenomas. Associated with damage to the pituitary gland, develops predominantly in women. In rare cases, they may be malignant.
- Ependymoma. The cells involved in the synthesis of cerebrospinal fluid change.
Secondary neoplasms manifest metastases from other organs.
The exact reasons why brain cancer occurs and develops have not been established. Only factors that are likely to contribute to its appearance are identified.
According to statistics, heredity plays a big role. If there was a person in the family who was struck by cancer, then probably in the next generation or after a generation, someone else will appear who will be the victim of this disease.
The second important and frequent factor is a long stay in the radiation zone. Work with chemical elements such as lead, mercury, vinyl chloride, long-term use of drugs has a negative impact. Smoking, use of drugs, alcohol, genetically modified products leads to mutation of healthy cells. Often, craniocerebral traumas become a factor causing oncology.
According to statistics, a brain tumor often occurs in people over 65 years old, men, children of preschool or primary school age. It affects those who spend a long time with a mobile phone, sleeps with it, uses the device with a low charge. Cancer cells often appear after organ transplants or using chemotherapy to remove tumors in other parts of the body.
Signs of a brain tumor early stages can often be confused with symptoms of other pathologies, such as concussion or stroke. Sometimes they are confused with signs of diseases of internal organs. A feature that points to oncology is that these early symptoms do not go away, and their intensity is constantly increasing. Only at later stages does specific symptoms appear, indicating the likely appearance of brain cancer.
- Vomiting. She appears constantly, not associated with food, accompanied by nausea and dizziness. The last symptom appears in 45% of patients.
- Pain in the head. They appear predominantly at night or in the morning, they increase in a horizontal position, when moving by the neck or changing a pose. Often occur only on one side. Painkillers do not help. Pain is accompanied by changes in heart rate and pressure.
- Cognitive impairment. There are difficulties with memorization, concentration of attention, understanding of new information, its analysis.
- Numbness of the limbs. A small, passing numbness with time acquires a more resistant character and at some instant turns into paralysis.
- Temperature. With the defeat of cancer cells of the immune system, there is an increase in temperature.
- Fatigue. The waste products of cancer cells lead to poisoning of the body.
- Pressure drops.
- Weight loss.
Manifestations of this plan indicate the presence of severe pathology in the central nervous system and can no longer be ignored. The patient often experiences aggression, apathy, depression, euphoria. A change of mood occurs suddenly and for no reason. They note the appearance of hallucinations, memory loss, the inability to understand where, at what time the patient is.
Damage to the cerebellum and brainstem
The main manifestations are associated with impaired movement, loss of balance, numbness and paralysis of the limbs. The gait is changing. She becomes shaky, insecure, can resemble the movements of a drunk. When walking, confusion between the legs and fall is possible. The patient can not always take the desired object – he sees it, but it’s impossible to direct his hand to him exactly.
Muscles weaken, lose their tone. There are involuntary movements of the pupils, there is a squint, visible images lose their integrity, forked. The face, extremities grows dumb, the smile is bent. The patient often changes mood.
At damage of a trunk also work of respiratory and cardiovascular system is broken.
A tumor in the region of the fourth ventricle leads to disruption of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. As a result of this, hydrocephalus, nausea, persistent severe vomiting occurs. Seizures of vertigo are characteristic, in which the patient does not understand whether he is standing or falling, and what is happening around him loses consciousness. There is a loss of vision.
The defeat of the Turkish saddle
Sweating increases, heart rate rises, frequent urge to urinate. The patient badly defines smells.
Defeat of the temporal lobes
The emergence and growth of cancer cells in this lobe on one or both sides leads to the destruction of the intellect. The patient is not able to understand the appeal to him, loses the ability to read, has problems with speech. There may be depression, apathy, panic attacks, unreasonable unrest. Distorted feelings associated with taste and smell. There are cramps.
Defeat of the occipital lobes
There is a visual impairment. Sometimes whole areas of the external picture fall out of the field. In other cases, there is a rapid loss of sharpness. Patients no longer recognize objects, letters, colors, shapes. Sometimes running pupils syndrome is detected, associated with involuntary movements of the eyeball. Visible images begin to tremble. Photophobia appears.
Defeat of the parietal lobe
Characterized primarily by impaired speech and perception. The patient loses the ability to speak, sometimes he cannot recognize the object by touch, loses the sensation of his body, begins to feel several hands or feet.
Muscle tone changes, it becomes either reduced or increased. Due to hypertonic movement becomes painful. There are involuntary movements of the hands, there is uncontrolled facial expressions.
Defeat of the frontal lobe
The intellect suffers, the patient loses the ability to control himself. His actions become constantly repetitive, automatic. So, when you bring items to your mouth, your lips involuntarily take the form of a tube. In cancer of the frontal lobe, it becomes poorer, becomes slurred, and articulation is disturbed. Aspirations, hopes disappear, desires are flattened. The patient becomes frivolous, loses the ability to think critically, often jokes, constantly chattering. In adults, all previously acquired skills are lost.
An adult will be able to detect symptoms and clearly localize pain. With young children harder, they can not clearly describe what is happening to them. In infants, a possible problem can be suspected if he often rubs his head with the hands and shouts strongly. The head grows in size, the large fontanel swells, the sutures of the skull diverge, the vessels protrude. According to statistics, 16% of tumors in children appear in the brain.
In the development of the disease it is customary to distinguish 4 stages:
- In the first stage, cancer cells are not capable of spreading. Surgical intervention gives a favorable prognosis. However, due to the fact that the early symptoms appear only mild fatigue, slight dizziness and do not cause concern, most of the symptoms of a brain tumor in the early stages of an adult are ignored.
- The second stage is characterized by enhanced tumor growth. Crayfish develops, its cells penetrate into the adjacent tissues, vessels, lymph nodes. Headaches, nausea, cramps. The patient often vomits. How many years the patients will live during the diagnosis of this stage depends on the success of the operation and the subsequent treatment.
- In the third patient, pain in the head is constantly being pursued, the temperature rises. The patient often does not understand where he is. Sometimes whole pieces of space fall out of his field of vision. An inoperable tumor is often diagnosed at this stage of the disease.
- The fourth stage is associated with persistent, painful, severe headaches, they are not amenable to symptomatic treatment. The patient may experience visions, hallucinations. There are epileptic seizures, more and more loss of consciousness occurs. Metastases spread to other organs, including such important ones as the heart and liver, and destroy their work. Neoplasm at this stage is not operated. Such patients usually live another year, maximum one and a half.
If a brain tumor is suspected, blood tests are prescribed – general and biochemistry. Performed instrumental studies: angiography of cerebral vessels, electroencephalography, computed, magnetic resonance imaging, radioisotope scanning.
Conduct a biopsy with the aim of taking samples of cerebrospinal fluid. Consultations are prescribed by specialists, including an oculist, who can detect symptoms of a brain tumor at the earliest stages.
Brain cancer is treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.
Removal of the tumor in the early stages of the disease gives a high chance of recovery. The proliferation of malignant cells leads to the fact that they penetrate into the tissues of the brain. In this case, surgery without their damage is impossible. At the third and fourth stages, the operation is practically meaningless.
Chemotherapy is carried out on the basis of surgical intervention in order to remove the remaining cancer cells and prevent their development. She is also prescribed if surgery is impossible. To determine the sensitivity to drugs take a tumor sample and conduct laboratory studies of its sensitivity. The feedback about this particular treatment choice is positive.
Radiation therapy allows you to remove cells that are not available for surgery.
Additionally, all patients are prescribed symptomatic treatment aimed at reducing headaches, relieving nausea, restoring the blood picture.
According to statistics, a brain tumor in 97% of cases is malignant. Finding it in the early stages gives a favorable prognosis. However, most often the first symptoms of the disease are unclear and can be perceived as signs of other pathologies. As a result, cancer is diagnosed when complete recovery is not possible. To avoid this, it is recommended to monitor your well-being and consult the doctor when the first signs of deterioration appear.