Sleep disorder and insomnia are both of a primary nature, that is, they occur independently, and secondary – they appear against the background of other diseases. Pathologies are observed at any age, but older people most often suffer from them. Timely identification of the causes of the violation, their elimination stabilize the patient’s condition, return him the joy of life.
Of the many types of sleep disorders, insomnia is the most common. Another name for this pathological condition is insomnia. The disorder is characterized by the appearance of problems with falling asleep. In severe cases, there is a complete loss of sleep for several days. Due to systematic lack of sleep, the following additional symptoms appear:
- worsening of mood;
- daytime sleepiness.
After several days of lack of sleep, the patient develops neurosis, hallucinations, other neurological disorders appear, if measures are not taken in time to eliminate the problem. Causes of insomnia:
- abuse of alcohol, narcotic substances;
- taking certain medications;
- severe stress;
- frequent use of coffee.
With such a mental illness as neurosis, insomnia disorders often occur. In addition, the problem appears after injuries and concussion. Pathology can also be caused by psychosomatics. Causes of insomnia in children lie in active games in the evening, conflicts with peers, overwork.
With this sleep disorder, treatment should begin as early as possible, since the long-term absence of a good night’s rest causes the development of severe neurological diseases.
In most cases, during the treatment of this pathological condition, sedatives and antidepressants are prescribed. In severe forms of insomnia – sleeping pills. In addition, patients are recommended to normalize the mode of physical activity and rest.
The classification of sleep disorders includes a pathological condition such as hypersomnia. In this case, the patient is constantly drowsy. The feeling of fatigue often occurs immediately after waking up. The patient feels weak. Emotional state – depressed.
Such a violation in a child is extremely rare. In childhood, the development of hypersomnia indicates the presence of serious diseases of the internal organs, accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. The causes of sleep disorders are rooted in such disorders:
- diseases of the heart, kidneys, lungs, brain;
- systematic lack of sleep;
- taking drugs, certain drugs;
- endocrine pathologies;
- head injuries;
- emotional turmoil.
Mental diseases such as schizophrenia and neurasthenia can provoke the development of hypersomnia. Possible idiopathic pathology option. Treatment of this type of disorder takes a long time. First of all, therapy should be aimed at eliminating the primary pathologies that provoked the development of hypersomnia. The procedure of Darsonval is often performed, it brings great benefits to the nervous system.
A type of hypersomnia is narcolepsy. This is a pathological condition characterized by an abrupt onset of a phase of REM sleep during wakefulness. Patients complain of bouts of irresistible drowsiness. Often this pathological condition has serious consequences, complications. Patients have cataplexy, muscle weakness, depressive neurosis, etc.
To confirm the diagnosis is assigned to conduct polysomnography. The patient is given 8-10 hours sleep at night. Recommended rest and in the afternoon. Amphetamine derivatives can be administered to the treatment regimen, including:
These drugs are used in short courses to avoid getting used to the body.
The term “parasomnia” hides a number of violations associated with sleep and awakening. Such disorders include speaking in a dream, somnambulism, nightmares, etc. Each parasomnia variant has its own characteristics.
When it comes to such a violation, the causes of the problem in neurological diseases, including epilepsy, emotional turmoil, etc.
This is a pathological condition in which the motor centers break down during rest, the brain loses its ability to control them. This leads to the fact that a person can walk or perform other actions. The patient’s eyes are open. The face does not reflect emotions.
After the end of the somnambulism attack, the person returns to bed or lies in any other suitable place. In the morning the patient does not remember his behavior during the night rest. As part of the treatment of this violation take hot baths with decoctions, which have a calming effect. Often prescribed sedatives.
This violation is accompanied by the appearance of bright dreams. A person awakens abruptly, feels a strong sense of fear. Blood pressure rises, heartbeat quickens. Experienced psycho-traumatic situations may precede the appearance of the problem, etc. If nightmares happen often, a person has a fear of falling asleep, and restless nights become more and more. Often, children face a similar problem.
This is due to increased emotionality. This violation must be promptly diagnosed and comprehensively treated. Therapy is carried out under the supervision of a neurologist, a psychologist. Recommended baths with herbs, decoctions based on lemon balm and chamomile, other means of herbal medicine. Often prescribed such drugs:
These drugs have a sedative, sedative effect. The doctor should select the drugs based on the age, nature of the disorder, the individual characteristics of the patient.
Extremely dangerous condition – sleep paralysis. In this case, when awakening at night, the person cannot move his limbs or scream. The patient is under severe stress. Man confuses reality and sleep. Sounds are heard. The consequences and complications of this disorder can be fatal. Against the background of fright, a spasm of the muscles of the larynx and respiratory failure often occur. Possible and heart attack. To provoke a problem can:
- increased loads throughout the day;
- taking certain medications, alcohol and drugs;
- mental illness.
To stabilize the state you need to sleep at least 8 hours at night and avoid stress. To improve the psycho-emotional state of the patient, antidepressants are prescribed. Additionally prescribed vitamins, sparing diet and physiotherapy procedures.
Bruxism is a disorder in which occasionally there are cases of involuntary tension and relaxation of the chewing muscles, clenching of the jaws. This condition is characterized by gnashing of teeth. Disturbance is common in children. With frequent repetition of attacks, premature abrasion of the teeth is possible.
There are several theories regarding the causes of this violation, but they have not yet been confirmed.
A very common disorder is sleep apnea. This condition is characterized by sudden respiratory arrest. The person himself may not mark the existence of the problem. However, this condition often leads to an increase in blood pressure, headaches, impotence, confusion and obesity.
Such a pathology can cause death. More often men suffer from sleep apnea. The factors leading to the development of this disorder include heart disease, overweight and advanced age. For diagnosis, the doctor prescribes electroencephalography, pneumotachography and oxycapnography and some other studies.
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To eliminate the problem, you need to reduce weight, normalize sleep and rest, stop smoking and alcohol. To maintain normal breathing, the CPAP method is recommended. This is a device that injects air, which prevents the decline of the soft tissues of the larynx and the blockage of the respiratory tract. If there are anatomical defects that can provoke apnea, surgical intervention is prescribed.
Behavioral disorder of REM sleep
Behavioral disorder of the REM phase is relatively rare. During this period, the person behaves violently. Such a disturbance occurs at the beginning of the dream. Most often, the disorder is observed in older people. The patient, due to increased muscle tone, can move his legs or arms without leaving the bed.
Such activity causes injury to the extremities when they strike at pieces of furniture. Often the patient shouts something or mumbles. Antiepileptic drugs are used to eliminate this disorder. Good effect gives clonazepam.