Types of disorders
Sleep problems are found in people of different age categories, and for each age certain types of disorders are characteristic. In children, phobias, fears or incontinence are more often diagnosed, in adults – difficulties in falling asleep, awakening at night. Elderly complain of pathological drowsiness, early recovery.
There are four main groups of deviations:
- Insomnia (insomnia) – is characterized by difficulties with falling asleep, nocturnal awakenings or an early rise, after which you do not want to sleep.
- Hypersomnia – manifested in the form of pathological drowsiness day and night.
- Parasomnia is the result of dysfunction of organs or their systems, affecting sleep with awakening. These include somnambulism, enuresis, epileptic seizures, and other abnormalities.
- Mode change – includes syndromes of premature or delayed sleep, an increase in the 24-hour cycle.
Symptoms of each of the disorders of their own, as well as the causes of poor night sleep in adults.
Causes and symptoms of disorders
Information about how and why sleep disorders develop is important for both the doctor and the patient. Short-term abnormalities are easier to treat, so if you find characteristic signs, you should seek qualified treatment.
In the absence of therapy, somatic diseases join depression. In addition, chronic pathology must be treated for a long time with the use of potent drugs.
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One of the most common disorders is called insomnia or insomnia. The term refers to several types of sleep problems that shorten its duration. Evening insomnia is the inability to fall asleep quickly, the inability to relax for more than half an hour, and the morning awakening. There are also periods of nighttime wakefulness, when a person periodically wakes up.
Among the causes of lack of sleep are strong emotions, stress, the presence of neurological or somatic diseases, restless legs syndrome, apnea, administration of CNS stimulant drugs, or alcohol abuse. Insomniacs have signs of chronic overwork: irritability, fatigue, headaches, depressive mood.
Symptoms of disturbed night rest: its duration exceeds 10 hours, during the day a person feels sleepy, does not feel rested, wakes up with difficulty. Additional day rest does not bring relief, some time after it there is a lethargy.
The causes of hypersomnia can be narcolepsy, medications, stress, organic lesions of the nervous system, Alzheimer’s disease, somatic, mental pathologies.
The reason for such a sleep disorder in adults is functional disorders of its cerebral regulation. As a result, paroxysmal states develop, which appear before falling asleep, after it, or in the process.
Parasomnias include night terrors, epi-seizures, enuresis, somnambulism.
Syndrome slow rest period is expressed in the late, after midnight, falling asleep. A person wakes up later too, so the rest time is not reduced. In case of premature, the opposite situation is observed: early falling asleep and awakening.
Another variation is a change in the 24-hour cycle towards longer duration. That is, the biological day with such a deviation that occurs in blind people can be up to 27 hours.
Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis is made on the basis of a patient’s survey by a neurologist, consultation of a somnologist, a special computer study – polysomnography. Treatment of sleep disorders in adults is carried out by different methods:
- Somatic diseases as the cause of the disorders are treated by specialized specialists.
- Treatment of sleep disorders caused by stress, other psychological factors requires psychotherapy.
- When hypersomnia is recommended to adhere to the daily regimen, to abandon the day rest, take CNS stimulants (calcium, ascorbic acid, psychotonics).
- Failure of biorhythms in the elderly is treated with a combination of vasodilators, herbal tranquilizers like valerian, and stimulants of the nervous system.
- Rescue hygiene of nighttime rest, sports, refusal from drinks and medicines with a tonic effect, taking herbal preparations with a weak hypnotic effect help to get rid of insomnia. In the absence of a result, the doctor prescribes non-addictive antidepressants (Amitriptyline, Doxepin), benzodiazepines. In severe cases, antipsychotics are used for medication: Promethazine, Levomepromazine.
When the first signs of insomnia, you can try to establish a healthy vacation yourself. If you do not sleep for a long time (more than half an hour), you do not need to lie in bed. It is advisable to get up and do quiet things until there is a desire to relax. Relaxing warm baths are considered an effective method for insomnia, as well as special relaxing techniques (auto-training).