They are also used to recover from a previous ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The list of drugs that normalize blood flow includes several groups of drugs: antiplatelet agents, vasodilators, and nootropics.
What are they needed for?
Disorders of cerebral blood supply are first manifested by headache, fatigue, memory and attention disorders. Gradually progressing, they lead to a decrease in intelligence, complete or partial loss of self-service skills and working ability. Often, increased blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels leads to their rupture – cerebral hemorrhage or hemorrhagic stroke.
The lack of cerebral blood flow for the first time can manifest itself quite early. Children drugs to improve cerebral blood circulation is prescribed in connection with birth injuries or heredity. Middle-aged people fall into the risk group due to lifestyle: physical inactivity, unbalanced diet, and the presence of bad habits adversely affect the tone of the cerebral arteries. In old age, deterioration of blood circulation is a frequent occurrence. The aging of the body is inevitably accompanied by dysfunction of its tissues and organs.
Types of drugs
To improve cerebral circulation and prevent complications should take special medicines. They are divided into several groups according to the mechanism of action:
- Vasodilators – vasodilators that relax the smooth muscles of the muscle layer of blood vessels. By increasing the lumen of the artery, more blood is supplied to the brain tissue with oxygen and nutrients.
- Nootropics are complex drugs that affect metabolic processes in brain cells. This avoids oxygen starvation, prevents the death of nerve cells.
- Antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants – a group of drugs that improve the rheological properties of blood. By preventing it from thickening and gluing together the formed elements, these drugs provide normal blood flow.
Vascular means are produced mainly in tablets, dosage forms for infusions or injections a little, they are used in the hospital. All drugs to improve cerebral circulation are intended solely for treatment.
To use them for the prevention or improvement of intellectual abilities (nootropics) is useless, and taking into account possible contraindications, it is even dangerous.
This is the name of an extensive group of drugs that affect vascular tone. Due to the different mechanisms of action, they relax the vascular wall, increasing the lumen of the artery.
Congenital anomalies, spasms, blood clots, or atherosclerotic cholesterol plaques can cause narrowing. After examination, the attending physician selects the appropriate medicine in accordance with the diagnosis of the options presented below.
Ca ions2+ when passing through the membranes of myocytes smooth muscles contribute to their excitability. As a result, the vessels of the head are reduced, the blood pressure in them increases, and the tissues do not receive enough oxygen and necessary nutrients. Drugs called calcium antagonists block the channels through which calcium ions enter muscle cells. Accordingly, the smooth muscles relax, and the lumen of the artery increases.
Calcium channel blockers such as Verapamil, Diltiazem and Nifedipine were first synthesized. These drugs to improve cerebral circulation are used today, but preference is given to second-generation calcium antagonists. New drugs are more selective and less toxic, that is, cause much less side effects. In addition, they are characterized by a prolonged effect: Lomir, Gallopamil, Octidipine, Klentiazem can be taken only once a day instead of three or four.
Correctors of cerebral circulation
Drugs in this group improve the blood supply to the brain through a complex action. First of all, they block calcium channels, thus contributing to the expansion of blood vessels. Also, the active substances of the proofing agents are involved in the transport of glucose, necessary for the cells to live.
Increasing the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia, they have no effect on blood pressure, since they affect mainly the microvasculature. In the list of the most effective drugs appear: Kavinton, Vinpocetine, Kavintazol, Bravinton.
Under the influence of the mediator noradrenaline, adrenomimetics of endogenous or exogenous origin, the alpha adrenoreceptors of the nervous system transmit excitatory impulses to smooth muscle cells. Accordingly, the tone of cerebral vessels increases, and their lumen is narrowed.
Normally, this reaction is observed in response to danger, severe stress or fear. If the neurohumoral regulation is impaired, the condition becomes chronic and can provoke ischemia of the brain tissue.
Alpha-blockers block the possibility of mediator interaction with the receptor (screen it). Having ceased to receive irritating nerve impulses, the smooth musculature of the vascular wall relaxes. Unlike the previous group of drugs, blockers affect not only the microcirculation. When they are taken, the veins also expand, and blood pressure decreases. Therefore, in case of hypertension, Nitsergolin, Butiroksan, Terazosin are recommended to be taken, and for patients with low blood pressure, they are unsafe.
A nicotinic acid
Vitamin PP or niacin helps to improve cerebral circulation by optimizing metabolic processes at the cellular level. This substance is involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, redox reactions, which reduces the hypoxia of brain tissue. In addition, nicotinic acid stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins, which cause expansion of the microvasculature.
Niacin is found in many foods, and is also used by the pharmaceutical industry to produce various drugs. In pharmacy chains, you can purchase the drug nicotinic acid in pure form or as part of a multivitamin complex. Combined drugs to improve microcirculation with niacin are also available: Xanthinol nicotinate, Nikoshpan and others.
The mechanism of action of this group of drugs that improve cerebral circulation, based on the stimulation of the functions of the nervous tissue, the restoration of cells and connections between them. The use of nootropics does not provide a vasodilating effect as such. However, due to the activation of metabolic processes in the brain cells, oxygen starvation is prevented.
The most popular and effective drug in this category is Piracetam tablets or capsules. It restores the membranes of nerve cells, neural connections, prevents spasms of cerebral vessels. Another aspect of the therapeutic effect of this nootrope is the prevention of platelet aggregation. As a result of regular use of the drug, not only is cerebral circulation restored, but intellectual and mental disorders are also eliminated.
Antiplatelet and anticoagulants
Not only the tone of the muscle layer or the presence of atherosclerotic cholesterol plaques affect the throughput of arteries. With an increase in blood viscosity or the presence of blood clots in the bloodstream, blood circulation also slows down. To solve these problems in the arsenal of modern medicine there are two groups of drugs. The first is antiplatelet agents that prevent adhesion (aggregation) of platelets and red blood cells or their adhesion (adhesion) to the walls of blood vessels.
The most famous of the drugs in this group is acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin. It is quite effective, but it is used with caution for treatment, as it often causes irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. Drugs such as dipyridamole, clopidogrel, pentoxifylline are considered less toxic antiplatelet agents.
The second group – anticoagulants – thins the blood. The mechanism of action of the drug can be direct or indirect. In the first case, the active substance inhibits coagulation factors directly in the bloodstream. In the second, the synthesis of these compounds is blocked in the liver cells. Warfarin, Antitrombin, Dikumarin are most commonly used among anticoagulants.
In addition to tablets for blood circulation of the brain, non-drug methods of treatment are useful. The cause of cerebral blood flow in most cases is in the wrong way of life. Hypertension, osteochondrosis, atherosclerosis – a consequence of physical inactivity, unbalanced diet, the presence of bad habits.
Revising the diet, doing sports and giving up alcohol abuse and smoking can significantly improve overall health and increase the effectiveness of drug therapy. Also, as a supplement to the main treatment, you can use recipes of traditional medicine with the approval of the doctor.
With hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, it is very important to eat right. Very often, when the disease is in the initial stage, it is possible to cure it without the use of drugs. Basic rules for healthy eating:
- Refusal from easily digestible carbohydrates, saturated fats. That is, sugar, animal fats (pork, lard), margarine and any products where they are present will have to be excluded from the diet. Consumption of eggs, butter, cheeses should be minimized.
- Compliance with the mode of eating and limiting portions. There is preferably at the same time of day, at least 5 times and gradually. This condition applies to any medical diet and nutrition in general. This mode will help to normalize the metabolism and get rid of excess weight.
- Special heat treatment products. You can cook only a couple, cook or bake. Fried, smoked, marinated dishes are contraindicated.
Food should consist mainly of vegetables, lean meat or fish, cereals, fruits. It is undesirable to drink coffee, strong tea, and soda and alcohol – under a total ban. Be sure to follow the drinking regime.
Moderate exercise improves cerebral circulation in any case, if there are no contraindications. And with cervical osteochondrosis, special exercises are the optimal treatment method. If cerebral circulation is impaired as a result of deformation of the vertebrae or intervertebral hernia, drug treatment must be combined with gymnastics.
The standard complex is a series of bends and turns of the head, various movements in the shoulder girdle. You need to do it yourself at home, but you should first consult with your doctor.
It is necessary to use prescriptions of alternative medicine with caution. Pharmaceutical preparations compare favorably with self-made dosage accuracy and safety in use, but with the permission of the attending physician, folk remedies can also be used.
It is believed that a decoction of hawthorn with periwinkle will eliminate the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorders, improve memory and general well-being. It is prepared from two spoons of a mixture of plant leaves and a liter of boiling water. After a brief boil, allow the broth to cool, strain it, and then take half a cup before eating.
Against increasing pressure, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine, lemons, honey, and garlic are often used. These three products are really very good for the cardiovascular system, so they just need to eat more.
However, there are special recipes for the activation of cerebral circulation. For example, mix two chopped lemon grinder with two tablespoons of honey and then take a tablespoon three times a day. This mixture is certainly useful, but it should be remembered that any folk remedies can only be a supplement to the basic medical treatment.