- 1 Features of injury and its causes
- 2 The main symptoms and extent of injury
- 3 Actions before the arrival of the doctor
- 4 Diagnostic procedures
- 5 Peculiarities of treatment and prescribed medications
- 6 Features of the mode
- 7 Herbal Therapy
- 8 Nuances of rehabilitation
- 9 Possible complications
- 10 Conclusion
In addition, it is important to know what to do with concussion in order to avoid unpleasant consequences for the injured person.
Features of injury and its causes
Concussion is a consequence of the impact of the brain on the walls of the skull. Moreover, after the first contact, a second occurs, the brain undergoes a counterstrike on the opposite wall of the skull. Being the easiest type of injury, concussion does not lead to the death of nerve cells, but only worsens their work.
The causes of injury are many, among the main ones:
- fall (enough height of own growth);
- traffic accident;
- accident or failure to comply with safety regulations at work;
- head bruise due to inattention;
- a blow to the head (during a fight or unresponsive);
- classes of contact sports.
It is important to understand what signs indicate concussion, how to give the victim first aid, so that subsequent treatment has the best result.
The main symptoms and extent of injury
The main symptoms of concussion are: loss of consciousness, dizziness, nausea, worsening of motor coordination, sweating, blanching of the skin. The severity of the injury makes it possible to single out several degrees of its manifestation. Although in our country the cases of application of such a classification are not so frequent.
The first degree is characterized by a brief loss of consciousness for several minutes. There are cases when a swoon does not happen at all. Within 15-20 minutes, the injured person becomes better, but nausea is observed. Pulse unstable, shortness of breath. But these manifestations are not due to brain damage, but to a state of stress.
The second degree is characterized by loss of consciousness for a longer period (10-20 minutes). If you look at the pupils of the victim, you can see the difference in their sizes. This phenomenon is called anisocoria in medicine. Also, a person has a headache, difficulty in focusing attention on an object, a violation of temporal orientation, and sometimes seizures. If you ask a question, you can hear incoherent speech, inadequate situation answers.
The third degree is the most severe and severe in terms of the effects of brain concussion. The syncope can last for an hour, sometimes there is a coma. Some victims have a memory loss – they do not remember the events preceding the injury. In addition to the symptoms inherent in the second degree, there is profuse bleeding from the nose and ears, ear noise, severe headache. Photosensitivity and painful reaction to noise are also noted.
Symptoms manifest themselves in different ways, much depends on the age of the person. In children whose age does not exceed a year, loss of consciousness may be absent, but drowsiness and increased perspiration will appear. Increased pulse and pallor of the skin – a clear sign.
Adolescents and adults more often than children lose consciousness, even if it is a slight concussion of the brain or its average degree. In the event of a severe injury, this age group has long-term memory lapses regarding previous events. Those people whose age is 60 years and above, fainting due to a head injury occur less frequently. But violations in spatial and temporal orientation make themselves felt.
Actions before the arrival of the doctor
Calling an ambulance is the first thing to do for a person who has a head injury. To avoid dirt, wounds and abrasions on the head must be processed. Any antiseptics will do – Miramistin (normal or as a spray), Septomirin. The edges of wounds should be treated with iodine solution.
If there is one hundred percent certainty in the absence of spinal injuries, the victim must be placed on the right side. The head should be slightly raised, and the left arm and leg bend at an angle of 90 degrees. This position of the body will provide immobility and prevent a coup on the back.
If drowsiness occurs, you should try not to let the patient fall asleep before the ambulance arrives. Otherwise, there is a chance to fall into a coma. But there is no sufficient evidence for such an assumption in practice.
If there is a loss of consciousness, first aid for concussion of the brain is to give the body a special position. The head should be slightly tilted, and the face should be pointing towards the ground or the floor. This will provide air access, prevent language from sticking and suffocation in case of vomiting.
Dry ice can be applied to the damaged area if it is on hand. Any item that can provide cooling of the damaged area will do. If the waiting of the doctors is not possible, the patient must be taken by himself to the nearest trauma unit. When transporting it is desirable to reduce the number of shaking the victim.
Only a thorough diagnosis and collection of the patient’s history will allow the attending physician to choose the correct patient management tactics. Despite a satisfactory condition and minor deviations from the norm, it is undesirable to cancel a medical examination. Concussion of the brain creates the risk of complications in the case of incomplete picture of the damage received.
The patient is interviewed using the Glasgow scale. If the test result is from 13 to 15 points, then the doctor was able to determine concussion. In addition, the following studies may be additionally prescribed:
- Ultrasound of blood vessels;
- x-ray of the head and cervical spine;
- MRI or CT scan.
EEG helps determine electrical brain activity. An indirect examination of the presence of increased intracranial pressure will help examination of the fundus.
Since some of the symptoms manifest themselves after 12-15 hours after injury, patients are not recommended to leave the hospital. If the patient’s condition worsens, the duration of treatment increases.
Peculiarities of treatment and prescribed medications
After determining the severity of the injury, the doctor determines the features of further therapy. In case of slight injury, the patient can be treated at home. It is important to strictly observe the appointment. If the injury is severe or moderate, the treatment is carried out in a hospital.
Nootropic drugs are prescribed – Nootropil, Piracetam, Picamilon, etc. Vasotropic drugs help to prevent complications at the vascular level – Oxybral, Theonikol, Vasotropin. Pantogam, Kogitum and Vasobral will help reduce fatigue and irritability.
Diuretic drugs will help eliminate swelling of the brain. Vitamins of group B, folic acid will accelerate the recovery of damaged nerve cells. With severe headaches, treatment is symptomatic – doctors prescribe Pentalgin, Maxilgan. Sometimes it is necessary to take tranquilizers, for example, Fenazepam.
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The severity of the injury affects the recovery period. In the most severe forms, hospitalization is delayed for several months. Mild tremor is treated for a couple of weeks. In any case, the patient is shown a benign regimen.
Features of the mode
When staying at home for the period of recovery, the patient should observe bed rest. Its duration depends on the degree of concussion. It is important to remember that these days are contraindicated:
- watching TV;
- reading books, newspapers, magazines;
- work or play on the computer;
- long conversations.
The nervous condition of the patient is stabilized with the help of sedatives: Motherwort or Valerian tablets, Corvalol drops. The room where the injured person is located should be well ventilated, the temperature regime should be maintained at around 18-20 degrees.
Sleep is also part of a successful recovery if it lasts at least 10 hours a day. If there is photophobia, then it is better to close the curtains in the room. Extraneous noise should be eliminated, but pleasant relaxing music (not with headphones!) Will be beneficial.
The patient may be under the supervision of the duty therapist, if we are talking about home recovery. In the hospital, the observation is carried out by a surgeon and a neurologist. In extreme cases, consult a neurosurgeon.
Improve well-being and normalize sleep help broth peppermint, motherwort, lemon balm. For the prevention of inflammation, you can use chamomile, thyme and mistletoe. Yarrow, shepherd’s purse, black dubrovnik and field horsetail provide a mixture that improves blood supply to the brain.
The use of folk remedies in the form of herbs and fees is possible only after consulting with your doctor.
Nuances of rehabilitation
After completing bed rest and stabilizing the patient’s condition, doctors recommend taking a course of recovery. Massage, physiotherapy, therapeutic gymnastics will allow the circulatory system to return to its normal state. It will be useful to follow a diet. Of dairy products, emphasis should be placed on cheeses and cottage cheese. Vegetable food should be represented by an abundance of fruits and vegetables.
Despite the possible difficulties, smokers and alcohol lovers are better off giving up bad habits. It is recommended to limit the use of coffee, sweets, carbonated drinks, reduce the amount of fatty and salty foods.
The restriction on the performance of heavy physical work should be at least a month, excessive mental stress is extremely undesirable. Compliance with simple rules will form the basis of a sparing mode and will allow you to quickly recover performance.
The effects of concussion can be serious if treatment is not started on time. Non-compliance with the recommendations of doctors also leads to complications. Over time, the following negative effects of improper behavior of the patient:
- chronic headaches develop;
- post-traumatic encephalopathy (dystrophic changes in brain tissue) occurs;
- memory problems are observed;
- sensitivity to weather changes develops;
- depression increases;
- insomnia occurs.
Severe complications include seizures, epilepsy, dementia. To prevent such consequences, if you regularly undergo examination by a neurologist, carefully examined in the direction of a doctor.
According to statistics, 400 thousand people are diagnosed with concussion every year in Russia. Despite the mild form of injury, the consequences of not paying attention to it may be the most serious. Timely first aid and strict adherence to the recommendations of the doctor will avoid complications.