Circadian Rhythms And Drugs
- 1 Our inner clock
- 2 Nature runs slowly
- 3 Drugs to save side effects reduce
- 4 A matter of time
The bad news: biorhythm calculations are about as meaningful as a substitute for coffee. The good: The biological rhythm exists. In the course of his Evolution, man has developed an inner clock, set over the span of a day, seen on the exchange between light and Dark.
Our inner clock
In Thousands of years, from the sun by a predetermined day-night rhythm in the genes; in each cell of such \”clock genes\” that control the daily routine of the body functions. Temperature, pulse, sensation of pain, mental and physical performance, activity of kidney, liver and digestive system, almost all of the processes in the body ticking of the clock of this ancient biological timer.
Although there is the well-known morning person and early riser, but in spite of individual differences in the day-night rhythm: a natural, completely \”active at night\” are the least people. The majority of the night workers have to fight against their inner clock. The constant drifting Apart between biologically predetermined resting phase, and of forced activity leads to night workers and shift workers more likely to be depressed, gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular problems.
And night work has, however, also their positive sides: The majority of children are born at night – if you let them.
Nature runs slowly
Given the internal clock to run free, by taking away external influences, such as the alternation of light and darkness and social constraints, they are usually a little slower, and levels off to a 25-hour day. It is called the circadian rhythm, therefore, \”circadian\” (from the \”about\” and \”this\” of the day).
Scientists have also now found out where the \”Central clock\” of the people sitting in it: It is a grain of rice large Organ in the brain connected by nerve pathways, which differ from the optic nerve with the eyes. Therefore, the Blind in the day-night-rhythm of life. Only if your eye nerves are missing completely, for example due to an Operation, you lose the sense of time.
Diseases follow a certain daily rhythm. Most heart attacks happen in the morning between eight and twelve o’clock, those with rheumatoid arthritis usually suffer from in the morning under the greatest stiffness, and pain. And to the dentist is the best afternoon. The pain feeling is against 15 a.m. on the weakest, on the other, local pain and narcotics work, this time at the longest.
Drugs to save side effects reduce
Exactly these cycles, try to explore Chrono pharmacologists (chronos = time) in order to achieve the best possible effect of medicines or to reduce the side effects.
So about Björn Lemmer, a Professor of pharmacology and toxicology says: \”Not only the right amount of the right substance needs to reach the right target organ, this must also be done at the right time,\” is a classic example the active substance theophylline for Asthma. \”Here is a drug was approved, with the patient the three times daily intake saves. It only needs to be taken twice, in the morning, a lower dose and in the evening a stronger one. Or just a strong evening dose, because asthma attacks occur more at night than during the day.\”
An example of how the right time efficacy and tolerability improved, pain-relieving drugs that are prescribed for rheumatism. The Affected take up of the Mediterranean in the evening, kiss and make it better and at the same time, the active ingredient, is available when you need him the most, namely in the morning. The inclusion of the biological rhythm in the treatment may not cure a disease faster or better, but you can make it easier for the patients, but after all, the life.
Medications: types and dosage forms Grapefruit juice can tablets be more Alcohol in medicines
A matter of time
For some drugs is now scientifically proven good, whether their effectiveness follows the biological rhythm and if Yes, what time is best to or at best tolerated. Individual deviations from the average of the daily rhythm need to be taken into account. However, it is not yet investigated whether people whose work differs rhythm strongly on the biological rhythm, such as shift workers, flight attendants, pilots, other rules apply. Taking in the evening
- Mequitazine, a specific antihistamine against allergies
- H2 blockers, such as cimetidine, Famotidine and ranitidine, to reduce gastric acid in the stomach and intestinal ulcers
- Statins, such as Simvastatin and Lovastatin, the cholesterol-lowering
- Pain and anti-inflammatory agents, so-called NSAIDs, such as acetylsalicylic acid, Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen
- Theophylline, Salbutamol, and prednisone for Asthma, where usually a smaller dose in the Morning is necessary
Taking it in the Morning
- The Beta-blocker Propranolol in Angina pectoris
- Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole, the chokes also the stomach acid, but otherwise act as H2-receptors inhibitor. They are both in gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as chronic heartburn prescribed
- Glucocorticoids in rheumatology
Taking in the afternoon
- Local pain and narcotics