How to properly render first aid to a person with convulsions: an action algorithm
- 1 Causes of cramps
- 2 First aid for convulsions
- 3 Drugs with convulsions
- 4 Folk remedies for convulsions
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Conclusion
Spasm – involuntary muscle contraction, which is accompanied by pain, numbness, heaviness, discomfort at the site of spasm. Single seizures do not carry danger, repeated repetitions of spasm indicate diseases of various etiologies – it is necessary to consult a specialist for consultation.
Causes of cramps
Treatment of convulsive syndrome begins with the diagnosis of the cause of the pathological process. Muscle spasm can result from:
- temperature drops;
- rapid growth of body weight;
- insufficient intake of fluid in the body;
- calcium deficiency, magnesium, vitamin D, which are involved in the relaxation of muscle tissue;
- diseases of various etiologies (pathology of the central nervous system, vascular system, endocrine disorders).
Frequent convulsions during pregnancy, which is caused by hormonal changes in the woman’s body, an increase in the load on the muscular system as the fetus grows.
First aid for convulsions
Convulsive syndrome leads to impaired blood flow with nutrients and oxygen to the muscles, which leads to the development of ischemia. To avoid unpleasant consequences, you should provide first aid for cramps in the legs.
When spasm is necessary to relax the muscles, relieve stress. The victim needs to take a horizontal position or sit down. To relieve stress, you can direct the toes of the foot to the body of the patient. Such movements lead to tension of the gastrocnemius muscle. You can prick a muscle with a needle (pin), which is covered by a spasm, or do a massage, carefully kneading the injury site. A warm foot bath will be effective.
After stress relief, the victim must rest, taking a horizontal position with straight legs. In case of insufficient air intake, ventilate the room.
First aid on the water
Most often with convulsions can be encountered as a result of a sharp temperature drop while swimming in a pond. In the water it is difficult to cope with muscle spasm, in the absence of outside help, death by drowning is possible.
So what to do if your leg cramps in the water? First of all, calm down and try to stay on the water, turning over on his back. Next, perform exercises with pulling up the toes of the foot to the body or pinch strongly the calf muscle. When a spasm in the thigh – bend the leg at the knee, pull it back, pushing the foot as much as possible. After removing the spasm swim to the shore on the back. After getting out of the water, do a self-massage and relax.
Help with high temperature
Frequent cramps in children against the background of high body temperature with acute respiratory viral infections, other diseases of infectious nature. Muscle spasm occurs when the thermometer reaches 38 0C. The main reason is the predominance of excitation processes over inhibition processes in the brain, which leads to the appearance of pathological impulses. Convulsive syndrome is hereditary. After muscle spasm on the background of hyperthermia, thermometer performance should be reduced even at 37.5 0WITH.
At high body temperature, first aid for a convulsive seizure involves taking medications that relax muscles, lower body temperature – the combination Paracetamol + No-shpa. Analgin and Aspirin are used only on the recommendation of a physician, as they can lead to a worsening condition of a small patient.
Help with epilepsy
With epileptic seizures, the patient needs the help of a specialist, which involves the introduction of Diazepam, magnesia, diuretic.
Before the arrival of the emergency care of the patient, you need to put on his back and turn his head to the side. Such a position of the body will help prevent asphyxiation from the ingress of saliva or vomit in the organs of the respiratory system.
Next, you need to make sure that the victim can not harm himself, for this to remove all dangerous items that can be hooked during the attack. It is important to monitor the breathing of the patient, not to try to stop the convulsions while holding the limbs – in this way one can only injure oneself and a person with an epileptic seizure.
Drugs with convulsions
Important! Prescription drugs by medical staff!
For epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and other diseases of the central nervous system, doctors prescribe special medications that can cope with the convulsive syndrome based on the cause of their occurrence. These include tranquilizers, anti-Parkinsonian drugs.
The first group of drugs refers to psychotropic, which have a sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety, blocking action. Tranquilizers help relieve anxiety, relax, enhance the processes of inhibition in the nervous system, which helps to cope with muscle spasm.
Anti-parkinsonic drugs of directional action contribute to an increase in the level of dopamine – a neurotransmitter responsible for the transmission of impulses from the nodes of the nervous system to the muscles. This group of drugs includes Levodopa, dopamine agonists, enzyme blockers, anticholinergics.
In the absence of pathologies of the nervous system, muscle relaxants of central and peripheral action can be used to eliminate seizures.
Centrally acting muscle relaxants are the basis of anticonvulsant therapy, are prescribed for adults and young patients. They are classified into three groups: derivatives of glycerol (Meprotan) and benzimidazole (Flexen), mixed preparations (Mydocalm).
Peripheral muscle relaxants are more effective and help in a short time to cope with the convulsive syndrome due to the blocking of muscle receptors (Pankuroniy, Tubocurarin, Ditilin).
Anticonvulsant drugs can cause adverse reactions in the form of dizziness, headaches, disorders of the digestive tract, hypotension. Not assigned to patients with individual intolerance to the components of medicines, with severe pathologies of the liver and kidneys.
Folk remedies for convulsions
Folk remedies in the treatment and prevention of seizure syndrome play a secondary role and are used as adjuvant therapy. All components used for the preparation of medicines based on traditional medicine recipes have a sedative, relaxing, antispasmodic effect.
To relax and relieve tension after cramps, you can prepare herbal decoction based on calendula, chamomile, thyme, thistle, clover, rhubarb. To do this, mix these medicinal plants and one tablespoon pour 250 ml of boiling water. Insist to cool, filter, moisten the fabric and apply the application on the affected area.
Excellent help with muscle spasm will help tincture on tansy and thyme. For its preparation, you must mix 50 g of each plant and pour 1 liter of vodka or alcohol. Insist on for 7 days. Rub the skin after the attack, morning and evening until the complete disappearance of pain.
For ingestion, you can prepare the seeds of wormwood in oil – crush the seeds and pour any vegetable oil. Take 2-3 drops inside the morning and evening. The tool perfectly helps to deal with muscle spasm.
No less effective will be a decoction of wormwood: fill the roots of the plant with water, boil for 15 minutes. Drink 50 g three times a day. To relieve tension after an attack of seizures, you can drink a cup of tea with linden, chamomile, mint or melissa.
To improve the efficiency and taste characteristics of medicines, you can add honey, which is also used separately. To prevent convulsive syndrome, it is enough to eat 10 g of this beekeeping product daily. This method is not suitable for patients with individual intolerance to “sweet amber”.
In order not to deal with pain and discomfort against the background of convulsive syndrome, you need to eat right and drink plenty of fluids. Smoked foods, fried and fatty foods, canned foods, pickles, spicy and spicy foods that disturb metabolic processes, flush nutrients from the body and contribute to the accumulation of harmful compounds should be excluded from the diet. Exceptions are sweet drinks, alcoholic beverages.
The basis of the diet should be foods rich in vitamins, minerals, micro and macro. It is necessary to eat vegetables, fruits, cereals, lean meats and fish, dairy products, dried fruits, nuts.
Insufficient flow of fluid into the body leads to impaired blood circulation, which leads to the development of convulsive syndrome. Therefore, an adult should daily drink 1.5-2 liters of fluid in the absence of contraindications. Preference should be given to pure boiled water, herbal decoctions, teas, natural juices, compotes and fruit drinks.
It is necessary to control physical activity – excessive loads in the daytime increase the risk of seizures at night. Representatives of the weaker sex with a tendency to convulsive syndrome should refuse to wear high-heeled shoes.
To prevent muscle spasms, light exercise should be done daily. Useful will be jogging, aerobics, walking, swimming. To relieve muscle tension can be carried out light self-massage of the lower extremities.
In addition, you should avoid hypothermia, which provokes the occurrence of convulsive syndrome. In the morning and in the evening it is useful to take a warm shower. Important rest is important. Healthy sleep is the key to health, to improve its quality, it is necessary to air the room before going to bed, the mattress should be comfortable stiffness, and bedding made from natural materials.
In case of a malaise, you should consult a specialist as timely diagnosis can prevent the development of serious pathologies and complications.
Seizures are the result of overwork, dehydration, hypothermia, and may also indicate the presence of diseases of various etiologies. In case of severe spasm, it is necessary to provide first aid to the victim, since a violation of blood flow occurs, and ischemia is possible.
There are special complexes of measures that will help to cope with convulsions and their causes. With repeated repetition of seizures, consultation with a specialist is necessary.