- 1 When are vasodilators necessary?
- 2 The main groups of drugs
- 3 The most effective drugs
- 4 Secrets of successful therapy
Increased pressure on the walls of blood vessels leads to their deformation, thinning, which is fraught with hemorrhagic strokes. In osteochondrosis of the spine in the neck, the main arteries are infringed. Pathological processes are accompanied by headache, deterioration of cognitive functions and coordination, other neurological disorders.
When are vasodilators necessary?
Disruption of cerebral circulation initially manifested symptoms of fatigue. A person does not get enough sleep, feels constantly tired, loses interest in life. However, if this condition does not pass for a long time, you should consult a doctor. Ignoring the first signs of cerebrovascular disease leads to its progression and the development of complications. Soon may arise:
- chronic headaches, sometimes with dizziness and loss of consciousness;
- problems with memory, concentration of attention, and also decrease in working capacity;
- numbness of the arms and legs, loss of coordination, functions of the lower extremities (intermittent claudication);
- insomnia, or, conversely, increased sleepiness;
- behavioral and mental disorders.
These symptoms develop on the background of chronic oxygen starvation of brain tissue, lack of nutrients. Ischemia gradually leads to the death of areas of the brain substance with irreversible effects. Due to the narrowing of the arteries of the head, the blood pressure in them increases, which often leads to rupture of the vascular wall – hemorrhagic stroke. Its consequences are disability or death.
Who should take vascular preparations for the brain? First of all, people with diagnosed diseases of the heart and blood vessels – arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, migraine. In diabetes mellitus, vasodilating drugs are also indicated, since this pathology in most cases is accompanied by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, blood clots, and an increase in pressure. Neurological disorders in children caused by birth trauma also often cause spasms of the arteries of the head.
The main groups of drugs
Vasodilator properties have different groups of drugs. Some block calcium channels, reducing the tone of the muscular layer of the arteries. Others act on the brain receptors, that is, indirectly.
Different drugs according to the degree of toxicity: the number of contraindications, the volume and frequency of side effects. Therefore, self-medication is unacceptable, and only a doctor can prescribe certain medicines. In addition, the dosage in each case are selected individually, in accordance with the diagnosis, existing contraindications, the general condition.
Penetrating through special channels in the cell membrane inside the myocytes, calcium ions cause excitation and, accordingly, increase the tone of the vascular wall. Blocking these channels allows you to eliminate the tension of smooth muscle fibers and thus expand the vessels. As a result, blood pressure decreases, blood circulation and oxygen supply to the brain tissues increase.
Verapamil became the first calcium channel blocker, later Nifedipine and Diltiazem were obtained. They have been used for a long time for treating cerebrovascular pathologies, however, nowadays, preparations for the brain vessels of the second, new generation, Anipamil, Isradipil, Nimodipine, Klentiazem, are used more often. These drugs are characterized by prolonged action along with fewer unwanted side reactions.
Drugs in this group affect vascular tone directly or indirectly. In the first case, they interact with the adenosine receptors of the central nervous system, in the second – they control the accumulation and breakdown of the neuromodulator adenosine. The latter is responsible for the expansion of blood vessels, as well as platelet aggregation and permeability of calcium channels.
Such medicines as Papaverin, Dipyridamole, Pentoxifylline allow you to optimize the sensitivity of prescriptions and control the amount of neuromodulator. Under their indirect influence, the vascular wall relaxes, the blood flow accelerates.
When in contact with adrenomimetics (medication or endogenous origin) and noradrenaline, postsynaptic alpha adrenoreceptors cause vasoconstriction. Preparations of the alpha-adrenergic blocking group screen receptors from neurotransmitters, thereby causing relaxation of smooth muscles.
They are divided into selective and non-selective. The former include Terazosin, Alfuzosin, Doxazosin, the latter include Phentolamine, Nicergoline, Butyroxan, ergot alkaloids.
These drugs are designed primarily to improve the higher integrative functions of the brain – memory, thinking, and learning abilities. This effect is achieved by activating blood circulation, eliminating hypoxia, restoring nerve cells and connections.
Some drugs act directly on the cells of the nervous tissue, while others stimulate brain activity indirectly – improve cerebral circulation, stimulate the supply of oxygen to the brain, optimize the rheological properties of blood. The most effective nootropic complex action is Piracetam.
Various phytopreparations, the active substances of which are ergot alkaloids or vinca, as well as an extract of the gingko biloba plant, help to expand the cerebral vessels and improve blood flow. Like synthetic drugs, they have a relaxing effect on the tone of the smooth muscle membrane of the arteries, providing increased blood flow, lowering pressure, preventing adhesion and aggregation of blood corpuscles.
It is a mistake to consider herbal preparations as safe and treat vessels without a doctor’s prescription. Such remedies as Cavinton, Bravinton, Tanakan also have contraindications with side effects.
All tissues of the body are exposed to the negative effects of free radicals resulting from the vital activity of cells. Special chemical compounds – antioxidants help reduce the harmful effects. The most famous of them are vitamins C and E, which are contained in many foods, as well as part of the multivitamin complexes.
Antioxidant activity has some synthetic drugs designed to restore cerebral circulation. For example, Mexidol with the active ingredient ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate.
The most effective drugs
The list of vasodilators consists of a large number of drugs that are available in capsules or tablets for oral use, as well as solutions that are injected into a vein. They have different mechanisms of action, many, in addition to the ability to dilate vessels, have the ability to disaggregate platelets, lower blood pressure. Therefore, only a doctor can choose the right medical treatment. Below for acquaintance the most effective vasodilators of various groups are presented.
The drug is a pharmacological group of nootropics, widely used in neurology for the treatment of various types of disorders. The active ingredient is a derivative of pyrrolidone, which has a versatile positive effect on the brain. Restores cell membranes, neural connections, reduces platelet aggregation, inhibits vascular spasms. Regular prolonged use of the drug improves microcirculation, eliminates intellectual and mental disorders.
Pharmaceutical companies produce two types of medication for cerebral vessels: a 20% solution and tablets with an active ingredient content of 200, 400, 800 or 1200 mg. The daily dose is selected according to individual indications and is divided into 2 or 3 doses (usually 2.4-4.8 g).
The drug should not be given to children younger than a year, administered to lactating and pregnant women, people with hypersensitivity, renal failure, depression, Huntington’s disease. As side effects, the occurrence of digestive disorders, nervous disorders, and allergies is likely.
A safe and effective calcium channel blocker to improve peripheral and cerebral circulation. Expanding blood vessels, virtually no effect on blood pressure, which is important for patients with low blood pressure. At the same time reduces the viscosity of the blood, providing an influx of oxygen to the brain tissue.
There is practically no toxic effect on the body, rarely causes adverse side reactions. However, the list of contraindications includes pregnancy, lactation, hypersensitivity, age under 5 years. Available in 25 mg tablet form, it is usually recommended to take 1 tablet three times a day.
Cheap effective drug from the group of adenosynergics, designed to relieve spasm of smooth muscles. It is used for cardiac or renal failure, asthma, apnea of newborns, disorders of cerebral blood circulation of the ischemic type. Normalizes respiratory function, saturating the blood with oxygen. At the same time blocks calcium channels, expanding blood vessels and lowering the pressure in the small circle.
Pharmaceutical companies produce two dosage forms of Eufillin: 2.4% solution for intravenous administration, as well as 150 mg tablets. Inside the drug must be taken from 1 to 3 times a day, one tablet after a meal. The duration of therapy depends on the severity of the condition, determined by the doctor individually.
The list of contraindications includes: hypersensitivity, tachyarrhythmias, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, hemorrhage, epilepsy, age less than 12 years, lactation. Use during pregnancy is possible only for health reasons.
Available in the form of tablets for the expansion of cerebral vessels (in various dosages) or injection solution. The drug has a complex effect on cerebral vessels:
- blocks sa2+ channels, relaxing smooth muscles;
- stimulates various metabolic processes;
- interferes with adhesion and aggregation of platelets.
The therapeutic effect allows the use of Vinpocetine for the treatment of disorders of cerebral circulation of various origins. At the same time, there are few contraindications to it: children and adolescents, pregnancy, breastfeeding, hypersensitivity, coronary artery disease and hemorrhagic stroke in the acute phase.
Adverse adverse reactions are extremely rare. The drug in tablets is taken every 8 hours at 5-10 mg, in injections – at 20 mg (in case of acute conditions).
Another drug of complex action, activating cerebral blood flow, dilating blood vessels, inhibiting platelet aggregation. It is widely used to treat disorders of both cerebral and peripheral circulation. Three dosage forms of pentoxifylline are produced:
- tablets in the enteric coating containing 100 or 400 mg of the active substance (the second option is a drug of prolonged action);
- injection solution with a concentration of pentoxifylline 20 mg / ml;
- concentrate from which the solution is prepared for intravenous fluids.
At the beginning of treatment, you need to take the medicine three times a day, 2 tablets (for a prolonged form, 2 times one). Then, when the therapeutic effect is reached, the dose is reduced. Intravenous infusions and injections are performed in a hospital setting.
The drug has a large number of contraindications, which include pregnancy, breastfeeding, children’s age, various internal hemorrhages and somatic pathologies. Other trade names: Vazonit, Trental, Agapurin.
Tableted preparation for vessels from the group of antioxidants, the active ingredient of which is ethyl methyl hydroxypyridine succinate. It has a versatile effect on cerebral arteries: from expansion to protection of cell membranes from free radicals. At the same time, Mexidol enhances the therapeutic effect of many drugs, which makes it possible to reduce their doses and, consequently, the harmful effects on the body. Therefore, he is often appointed in the complex treatment of cerebrovascular disorders.
The tablets contain 125 mg of the active substance, it is usually recommended to take 1-2 pieces three times a day. The duration of therapy depends on the specific diagnosis and the severity of the condition; on average, the course lasts 2-6 weeks. The list of strict contraindications includes hypersensitivity, acute liver or kidney failure. It is also impossible to prescribe the drug to pregnant, lactating, adolescents and children, since the effect of Mexidol in this case has not been studied enough.
Read also … List of the best drugs for the treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis: rules for use and contraindications
Secrets of successful therapy
Drug treatment can be prescribed only by a doctor of the appropriate profile after the examination. You must strictly follow his appointments, follow the dosage, adhere to the time and rules of admission.
It is important to consider the compatibility of different groups of drugs among themselves and with food. Some drugs are well absorbed, regardless of the presence or absence of food in the gastrointestinal tract, the effectiveness of others may decrease if taken on a full stomach.
In case of a number of diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension), a diet is necessary during medication treatment. Revision and correction of the diet, the rejection of harmful products in favor of vitamin-rich food in this case significantly increase the effectiveness of drugs. Another factor affecting the results of therapy is the presence or absence of bad habits. Cigarettes and alcohol have a negative effect on vascular tone, disturbing it, therefore, smoking and alcohol should be abandoned.