Urine Analysis


With the , the body gets rid of waste substances such as metabolic wastes, drugs and toxins. The urine is also part of a control mechanism, with the fluid and electrolytes in balance. His analysis may provide clues to various disorders.

Composition of urine

The urine consists of 95 % , in addition, it contains metabolic(end)products like urea, uric acid and creatinine, salts, acids, dyes, hormones and water-soluble vitamins. Urine is formed in the two kidneys, and the associated renal pelvis is collected and enters the bladder via the two ureters in the urinary. Urge to urinate arises, as soon as a certain filling state is reached; the urine draining via the urethra are willingly controlled.

The condition of the urine and frequency of urination depend on the Healthy of the ingested and on skin and breathing the lost amount of liquid. Per day, the kidneys make about 150 litres of urine and reduce the amount ultimately to 1.5–2 liters, which are excreted.

The typical urine smell is caused by uric acid and ammonia. The latter is increased if the urine is longer and is for the pungent odor. Its color of the urine is replaced by Bile pigments, resulting in the breakdown of red blood cells. It varies, depending on the degree of Dilution of light to dark yellow.

Changes in urine: causes

One or more of the above-described factors can be altered by pathological processes, such as bladder infections and kidney disease and thus help in the diagnosis. In addition to blood, cells, pathogens, disease, and other admixtures are in search of. In the case of certain metabolic disorders, enzymes and hormones can be measured, in the case of disorders of the kidneys or bladder function, can be connected special Tests.

The Following are typical causes for changes in the urine color, the amount of Urine and the odor:

  • Color: Certain foods such as blackberries (red-brown) and rhubarb (lemon yellow), or drugs such as antibiotics (brown) and vitamin tablets (orange) cause temporary discoloration. In the case of diseases or injuries of the kidneys and the urinary tract, protein, red and white blood cells or bacteria, can lead to turbidity or shade of color. The liver and TRANS-fusion incidents or porphyria, can cause a red coloration of urine. The Alkaptonurie, a rare metabolic disease colors the urine brown-black, with a inflammation of the liver, it can also be dark brown to green, and on Shaking yellow foam.
  • The quantity and odor: disorders of renal function, urine production may be limited, in the case of certain metabolic diseases such as diabetes, or medications, it comes to increased urine production and a very pale urine. Changes in the smell may be due to food – so a typical smell occurs after the consumption of asparagus in about half of the people. Offensive smelling urine is a result of a bacterial infection, a foul odor can be caused by bladder tumors. Typically, a sharp, acetone-like odour with the sugar is a disease when it is not set well.

Win a urine sample

In General, the sample from the midstream urine is obtained, so the middle of the urine portion of about 20-40 ml, without the urinary stream to break – is collected, after the first Portion was emptied into the toilet. To ensure that possibly contained the germs do not come from the external genitalia, but the urinary tract. In order to reduce the risk of contamination of the sample and to ensure the meaningfulness of the analysis, should be aware of the Affected the following points:

  • The urine must be in a lockable, clean urine Cup collected. Doctor or pharmacist make available.
  • The sex organs must be carefully washed.
  • The water, the woman should spread your pussy lips, the man pulling his foreskin back.

Must be in special cases, the urine is safely sterile, it can also be obtained by the physician by means of a catheter or direct puncture of the bladder through the abdominal wall.

more Article content

  • Urine analysis
  • Urine Analysis (Urinalysis): Examination Procedures

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