Viral meningitis: causes, symptoms, methods of treatment and prevention of dangerous pathology
- 1 Etiology
- 2 Causes of pathology
- 3 Symptoms of the disease
- 4 Diagnostics
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Possible consequences
- 7 Preventive actions
- 8 Conclusion
The disease is neurotropic, as the causative agent is meningococcal disease (meningitidis). Neutropic viruses are able to infect neurons (nerve cells), quickly spreading through the bloodstream throughout the body. The danger of such infection is that such viruses are resistant to the immune system. That is why viral meningitis is quite difficult to treat. It is important to timely identify the pathology of the characteristic symptoms and carry out the necessary treatment.
The disease is dangerous with serious consequences. Diagnosis is possible only in the clinic. Due to the fact that the symptoms resemble the flu, acute respiratory viral infections, often the detection of pathology occurs in the later stages. But among all known meningitis, viral disease has a more favorable course.
Causes of pathology
This disease is most often diagnosed in childhood. Outbreaks of epidemics and cases of diagnosis in adults are extremely rare. Viruses of this disease enter the body through airborne droplets, through water or contaminated products (fecal-oral route). Most often cases of infection are recorded in the spring and summer, when the body lacks protective forces, and the activity of the pathogen increases. In warm weather mosquitoes and ticks can be vectors.
Primary infection most often occurs in the mucous membranes of the large and small intestines. Once in the body, viruses enter the bloodstream and travel through the blood vessels to the brain and spinal cord. In the soft shell, an inflammatory focus occurs. During this period, the characteristic symptoms of viral meningitis begin to appear, the incubation period can last from 2 to 10 days. After this period, the disease begins to show more severe symptoms.
Symptoms of viral meningitis resemble colds. Most adults simply ignore professional help, trying to cope with the disease on their own.
The most common pathogens are viruses:
- Coxsackie virus;
- herpes virus;
Immunocompromised patients, alcohol abusers, HIV-infected people are at risk.
Symptoms of the disease
The danger of the disease is that its first stages may be asymptomatic or accompanied by a slight increase in temperature, the appearance of chills, weakness. Sometimes there is a headache, which is accompanied by nausea, rarely vomiting.
Viral meningitis at the peak of its development has more vivid symptoms. This usually occurs on the 4th day after infection. The pathology is accompanied by such signs:
- muscle pain;
- nausea, vomiting;
- cutting pain in the abdomen;
- runny nose;
- Brudzinsky symptom (severe pain when bending the head).
Parents should carefully monitor their child’s condition in order to rule out or diagnose viral meningitis in children in a timely manner. Infected infants have swelling and strong pulsation of the spring. Often there may be a loss of consciousness, excessive anxiety, unintended irritability. A severe form of the disease is accompanied by loss of consciousness, coma. With timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease lasts about two weeks.
When identifying these symptoms, it is important to quickly contact the nearest clinic. If a viral meningitis is suspected, the district therapist usually refers to a neurologist for consultation. To confirm or exclude the diagnosis, the patient is punctured the spinal cord with further examination of the cerebrospinal (cerebrospinal) fluid and the identification of the pathogen.
Cerebrospinal examination makes it possible to exclude or identify other pathologies. This may be oncology, leptospirosis or tuberculosis with similar symptoms. When such pathologies in the fluid reveal a high content of leukocytes and a small amount of glucose.
Detection of the meningococcus virus is a rather complicated task. This is due to the fact that the amount of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid is minimal. Therefore, an additional general and biochemical blood test, liver function tests, MRI of the brain are prescribed. This allows you to determine the level of electrolyte, glucose, lipase, creatine, amylase in the body. Based on the data obtained, the neurologist can confirm or exclude the preliminary diagnosis of the therapist, prescribe treatment if necessary.
In identifying the disease, the patient needs urgent hospitalization and inpatient treatment. The disease has adverse effects. Features of treatment imply a complex of antibacterial therapy, administered intravenously. Corticosteroids and tranquilizers can be prescribed to reduce the inflammatory process and prevent seizures.
Only antibiotics will not give proper results. It is important that the process is accompanied by activities aimed at improving their own immunity. Therefore, traditional medicine, vitamin complexes and specially developed food should be included in the overall treatment process.
Traditional medicine can be used only in combination with traditional treatment or for preventive measures.
In addition to these drugs, medications are prescribed analgesics to reduce pain. But often patients note that after the spinal puncture, the headache disappears. This is a temporary phenomenon, which is associated with a decrease in intracranial pressure at the time of such a procedure. After a while, the headache returns.
High temperature, which is usually higher than 38 ° C, requires the attending physician to appoint antipyretics. For children, it can be ibuprofen or children’s drugs containing paracetamol. All drugs are prescribed only by the attending physician and are taken in prescribed doses. Self-medication never gives a positive result.
Tips for traditional medicine
According to WHO statistics, viral meningitis is on the 10th place among diseases with a high mortality rate. The danger is that the pathology may develop after suffering from varicella, flu, rubella. This is explained by the fact that during the time of illness the immune system suffers and the body is not able to resist the virus.
To maintain immunity at the proper level will help broths made from such components:
- Linden blossom;
- currant leaves, strawberries;
- dog-rose fruit;
- St. John’s wort;
- lavender color;
To prepare the broth, you can take a separate component or use the collection. It is enough to mix all the plants in one container in equal quantities. Then 1-2 teaspoons of dry collection just pour a glass of boiling water. The decoction is infused, then filtered and drunk at one time with the addition of honey instead of sugar. Preventive course – at least 2 weeks.
Traditional medicine recommends not to forget from such important natural “healers” as cranberries, pollen, honey. This is exactly what can be taken over a long period. It definitely will not bring harm, but the protective functions in the body will increase significantly.
Excellent means to improve the immunity on the basis of ginger. It is necessary to wash, chop on a fine grater one root. Add three lemons, previously minced or chopped in a blender. Lemon is used along with the peel. Mix everything and add a glass of honey. Mixture stored in the refrigerator. Take 1-2 tablespoons on an empty stomach.
It is important to consider that these products can cause allergies. Before starting preventive measures, it is better to consult with your doctor or test the body yourself. If after eating cranberry juice or pollen appears itching, rash, it is better to refuse the help of these funds. Nature offers many beneficial alternatives. Even food enriched with vitamins can replace some decoctions and infusions.
Nutrition during the period of treatment and rehabilitation
At this time, the body should receive a sufficient amount of nutrients and vitamins. This is important for both children and adults. If the pathology is detected in an infant, it is necessary for the mother to take care that the breast milk is saturated with useful substances. Therefore, the recommendations presented are suitable for them. Adults need to completely eliminate alcohol and stop smoking. Do not eat fried, fatty, peppered, smoked. Consumption of salt and sugar is minimized or eliminated completely. In the diet should be present:
- dairy products;
- lean meats;
- sea varieties of fish;
- hard cheeses;
Dietetics recommend not to eat sweet desserts, sweet pastries, beans, coffee. The treatment will be most effective and will be much faster if you choose the right diet. Meal is carried out in small portions, 5-6 times a day.
For an adult, such a pathology has no serious consequences if it was promptly identified and treated. Dangerous disease is considered to be for children. After therapy, some babies may experience asthenia and headache attacks. Older children have noted:
- memory impairment;
- increased activity;
Such effects are rare. Usually they pass in a few weeks. Worse, if meningitis was not cured or treatment was carried out in the later stages. Children after such a pathology lag behind in mental and physical development, characterized by a clear violation of the intellect, often hearing loss and disorders of the organs of vision. This is a brain disease that is responsible for the activities of all organs and systems. Therefore, the consequences can occur in any internal organ.
The most dangerous consequences after suffering viral meningitis are severe complications in the brain and even death, which happens in 10% of all diagnosed cases. After treatment, the patient is recommended rehabilitation, which can last about 4 years.
The complex of preventive measures is not only important during the recovery period. Such measures will help prevent the occurrence of the disease. The most reasonable prevention is vaccination, but not everyone agrees. On the recommendation of WHO, such activities are recommended for children who have reached the age of 1 year, as well as for adults up to 29 years.
But there is no special vaccine yet. Often prevention is to observe basic hygienic rules:
- restriction or exclusion of contacts with patients;
- disinfection of consumed water;
- use only washed vegetables and fruits;
- the exclusion of swimming in water;
- compliance with hygiene standards in the room where the patient is or was.
In rooms where there is or there was a patient, full disinfection is carried out. If this is a child, then a pre-school or school institution will be quarantined for two weeks. People who cannot exclude contact with the patient are vaccinated. To do this, intravenous immunoglobulin, interferon – in the nose. Such preventive measures are carried out for two weeks.
The presented recommendations will help to avoid dangerous pathology, to eliminate serious consequences. Do not forget about the benefits of fresh air and sporting events. This can be combined during the evening cycling, which give a health effect.