An uncomplicated injury resulting from hitting the head during an accident, during a fight, falling or performing a sports exercise, sometimes causes a change in the location of the brain in the skull. The gray matter collides with the inner wall of the bones of the head and returns to its place. However, some nerve cells do not keep up with the movement and stretch or break.
Read also … What characteristic signs can indicate a child’s concussion and prevent serious complications?
The result is:
- malnutrition of cells;
- vascular damage;
- the occurrence of small gaps;
- depression of brain activity;
- hematoma formation.
With a concussion, the changes are reversible, but in severe cases and in the absence of proper treatment, they lead to negative consequences and cause severe pathologies.
Pain in the head, nausea, pallor, sleep disorders are among the main signs of concussion. The severity of their manifestation suggests three degrees of injury. The first degree can be characterized by a brief loss of consciousness. The patient turns pale, is lost in time and on the spot, he sees flies before his eyes. Both speech and movement are safe. Usually, with these symptoms, few people think about the danger of such a concussion.
At the next degree, the loss of consciousness lasts longer. The patient vomits, he complains of visual impairment, hearing, feeling of stupidity, lethargy. Numbness of the limbs. A person for some time loses control over what is happening, does not understand where he is and what is happening to him.
With a strong shake talk about the third degree. There is a loss of consciousness for a long time. Recovering, the person does not remember what happened. His nauseous, he complains of dizziness, weakness, can lose his balance. Vomiting appears, it makes noise in the ears, darkness appears before the eyes. Sometimes the symptoms do not appear immediately. For example, with the growth of a hematoma or edema after a relatively stable state, the head starts to hurt badly, fainting occurs.
For the treatment of concussion, mainly medical drugs are used. The choice of tactics depends on the results of diagnostics, including radiography, computed or magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography. Patient is advised to have an eye doctor. Medicines are prescribed based on the results of diagnosis.
Assigned to a comprehensive treatment, which includes drugs against:
- Headache and dizziness. First of all, it is Baralgin or Analgin. With strong, painful pain, Pentalgin, Medalgin, Maxilgan, Ketorolac, Tanakan are prescribed.
- Nausea Prescribed Reglan, Metoclopramide. Medications are used only for acute signs of nausea and vomiting.
- Sleep disturbance To treat disorders you need drugs that have ginseng, echinacea, eleutherococcus. For insomnia, phenobarbital is prescribed. Corvalol, motherwort will help to calm down.
- Psycho-emotional disorders. Nozepam, Fenazepam, Dormiplant are used.
- Increased pressure, the appearance of edema. Diuretic drugs are prescribed: Diakarb, Arifon, Veroshpiron.
- Malnutrition of brain cells. Apply Nootropil, Piracetam. For therapeutic purposes, glycine is prescribed.
- Breakage and reduce the elasticity of blood vessels. Use Actovegin, Dexamethasone, Vasotropin.
- Avitaminosis and weakness. Reception of folic acid, vitamin B, C, magnesium, phosphorus is shown. Assign Centrum, Kogitum, Vitrum.
- Atherosclerosis. Assign Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, Rosuvastatin.
The concussion can have a variety of consequences. The reason is the damage itself, the wrong actions immediately after the injury, the wrong treatment tactics. Some of the effects of a concussion occur immediately after a contusion. Others – in the distant future, when a person has already forgotten about the injury.
The earliest include post-traumatic encephalopathy, meningitis, post-communal syndrome. To the distant – emotional disorders, vegetative-vascular dystonia, intellectual impairment, post-traumatic vestibulopathy, headaches. The most severe are the effects associated with organic lesions.
Pathology hides a complex of disorders that affect the whole brain or its individual areas. As a rule, accompanied by impaired memory, thinking, behavior. The patient quickly becomes overworked, becomes impulsive, tearful. Stress or severe mental stress leads to aggression, neurosis. There is trembling of the limbs, a shuffling gait appears.
Changes can be severe with a gradual deterioration in brain function. Sometimes the symptoms do not appear immediately, but after a few years. Some researchers believe that post-traumatic encephalopathy occurs in 60-70% of people who have experienced severe or moderate injury.
As with any form of encephalopathy, 3 degrees of severity are characteristic of post-traumatic. In mild, minor disorders occur, mainly associated with increased fatigue, sleep disorders, and apathy. When the average appears insomnia, depression, thinking deteriorates, memory, there are constant pain in the head. Severe accompanied by convulsions, disorders of the vestibular apparatus, paralysis, dementia.
The hardest effect on a person who has suffered a concussion may be inflammation of the lining of the brain. It occurs because of their infection with staphylococci, streptococci, Klebsiella and other bacteria.
In people with traumatic brain injury, meningitis develops on average in 3% of cases. Occurs with strokes of the brain, fractures, wounds. Foci are located in the affected areas.
The development mechanism involves 2 ways. The pathogen directly enters the subarachnoid space as a result of open injury, edema, stagnant spinal fluid, or surgery. It penetrates into the shells through the altered walls of blood vessels.
The disease is manifested by fever, headache, fear of light, loss of consciousness, muscle stiffness. In severe cases, there is paralysis, convulsive seizures, impaired thinking.
Severe consequences of meningitis may be epilepsy, hydrocephalus, dementia, and death.
According to the researchers, post-commotion syndrome occurs in half of the victims of traumatic brain injury. It is characterized by severe pain in the head, sleep disturbances, bad mood, unreasonable anxiety, rapid accumulation of fatigue, distraction. Patients have sharp mood swings, apathy, depression. The child has a tearfulness, a tendency to whims. Alcohol resistance decreases. Vegetative manifestation of chills, periodic sweating, heart attack.
Symptoms may appear within six months, but in 12% of cases, signs of post-commutary syndrome are observed up to a year. There is no direct relationship between the severity of the injury and the appearance of this complication. Researchers also can not accurately explain the nature of its occurrence. The main reason is the psychogenic theory, but in about 10% of cases organic deviations are found in patients.
The main factors that lead to the appearance of post-communal syndrome are:
- Psycho-emotional features. Anxiety, emotional instability, looping on the injury, bad mood, depression.
- Chronic diseases. Vegetative-vascular dystonia, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, blood pathology.
- Social conditions. Problems in everyday life, disorder lead to sharpening of some personality traits. The desire to receive insurance payments.
- The actions of the medical staff. Reassess the severity of the injury and its consequences.
The onset of the disease is delayed. Signs of the IRR may appear in a teenager or an adult several years later. Pathology is associated with impaired vascular tone, often appearing as a consequence of concussion of the brain carried on the legs.
Symptoms of the disease are varied. It manifests itself in violation of heart rhythm, increased heartbeat, pale skin, sleep disorders, confusion, pain in the head, inability to concentrate on anything for a long time. Patients often have high or low blood pressure.
In the psycho-emotional sphere, irritability, tendency to panic attacks, suicide is observed. Patients may experience apathy, depression.
Pathology is often chronic.
The syndrome appears due to disturbances in the work of the vestibular apparatus. Characterized by disorientation, nausea, tinnitus, dizziness, not passing for a long time or appearing suddenly without any reason whatsoever. There may be episodes of arbitrary rotation of the eyes, tremor of the arms and legs. The patient may experience panic attacks.
Similar signs of pathology may occur with other complications of concussion, so accurate diagnosis is required to distinguish the disease.
Changes depend on the affected area of the brain. Manifested in the depletion of emotions, increased lability, the emergence of anger typical of man anger, aggression, hypochondria. The main signs can be combined into the following violations:
- Aspontannost and lack of own motivation. With the defeat of the left hemisphere and the frontal zone, the patient loses motivation.
- Euphoria. It appears disinhibition, carelessness, talkativeness, misunderstanding of the need to maintain distance with other people. Activity due to random factors.
- Anger Pathology is characterized by sudden flashes of unmotivated anger, aggression. The main cause are lesions in the forehead or temples.
- Depression. Occurs predominantly with injuries of the right temporal zone. Actions are slowed down, on the face – sadness, sadness. The patient may be anxious, apathetic. The violation is accompanied by a deterioration of memory, attention.
The main cause of cognitive impairment is the death of neurons in various parts of the cerebral cortex. A person loses the ability to think logically, analyze events and his actions, cannot relate them to reality. Ceases to perceive and understand new information.
Pathology is characterized by a decrease in memory – the patient forgets the whole events of his life, in other cases – what he just did.
There are difficulties with concentration. Suffers, impoverished speech.
After a concussion often a headache. Pain occurs immediately or after a while. Appear because of hematomas, in this case, the pain occurs in a strictly defined place. Hemorrhages are more extensive. Accompanied by convulsions, paresis.
By the nature of the pain can be dull, pulsating, obsessive. Appears more often in the evening, striking the neck, the back of the head. Accompanied by irritability, increased fatigue, aggravated by bad weather, climate change.
Prevention of effects
Complications can be severe. They appear, if you do not treat concussion in time, do not follow medical prescriptions, do not follow the recommended regimen. It is advisable to avoid heavy loads, stress, at least for a year. To cope with the effects of exercise therapy, walking in nature.
Consequences of concussion of the brain, even minor, can significantly change a person’s lifestyle. They are associated with violations of the emotional sphere, the intellect. Cause dementia, paralysis. Proper treatment and compliance with preventive measures will help to cope with them.